Bowie APA-137 - History

Bowie APA-137 - History


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Bowie

Bowie is a county in Texas.

(APA-137: dp. 6873; 1. 455'; b. 62'; dr. 24'; s. 17.5 k.;
cpl. 536; a. 1 5"; cl. Haskell)

Bowie (APA-137) was launched 31 October 1944 by California Shipbuilding Corp., Wilmington, Calif., under a Maritime Commission contract; sponsored by Mrs. J. Shaw; transferred to the Navy 22 December 1944; commissioned the following day, Commander F. L. Durnell in command; and reported to the Pac*112 Fleet.

Between 20 February and 27 July 1945 Bowie operated out of Pearl Harbor on troop and cargo runs to Eniwetok, Marshall Islands; Guam; Saipan; Ulithl; and Okinawa, with one voyage-fr4m San Francisco to Eniwetok, Ulithl, and Leyte (17 June-14 July 1945). Remaining at Pearl Harbor, 27 July-1 September, the transport then steamed to Japanese waters where from 22 September to 22 October she supported the occupation. Returning to the United 'States she was decommissioned at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard 8 March 1946 and returned to the Maritime Commission 14 March 1946.

Bowie received one battle star for her participation In the Okinawa operation (10-16 May 1945).


Biography of James 'Jim' Bowie

James "Jim" Bowie (c. 1796—March 6, 1836) was an American frontiersman, trader of enslaved people, smuggler, settler, and soldier in the Texas Revolution. He was among the defenders at the Battle of the Alamo in 1836, where he perished along with all of his comrades. Bowie was known as a legendary fighter the large Bowie knife is named after him.

Fast Facts: James Bowie

  • Known For: American frontiersman, military leader during the Texas Revolution, and defender of the Alamo
  • As Known As: Jim Bowie
  • Born: 1796 in Kentucky
  • Parents: Reason and Elve Ap-Catesby Jones Bowie
  • Died: March 6, 1836 in San Antonio, Mexican Texas
  • Spouse: Maria Ursula de Veramendi (m. 1831-1833)
  • Children: Marie Elve, James Veramendi

James Bowie

One name forever linked to the Battle of the Alamo is James Bowie. Although not yet a household name like “Crockett” at the time of the battle, Bowie and his exploits had gained renown in some quarters. His death on March 6, 1836, however, ensured his place in history as one of Texas’ most interesting figures.

Many early Americans were drawn to the western frontier of the new republic — among them the Bowies. James’ parents had lived in Tennessee before moving to Kentucky, where James was born 1796. On the move again in 1800, the family crossed the Mississippi River into Missouri and settled in what was then Spanish Louisiana. Following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the Bowies moved once more, this time to southeastern Louisiana. Not yet a state, Louisiana still retained a frontier atmosphere.

James soon struck out on his own, intent on making his mark on the world. In the antebellum South, two commodities could lead to wealth and respectability — land and slaves. James Bowie speculated in both. Before long he had acquired title to thousands of acres throughout Louisiana and Arkansas Territory. High-stakes speculating was a risky business and while amassing a small fortune, Bowie was also making enemies. In 1826, Bowie was shot and wounded by a rival in the lobby of an Alexandria hotel, an event that proved to be a turning point for him.

James and his older brother, Rezin, shared an extremely close relationship. Concerned for his brother’s safety, Rezin gave James a long-bladed butcher knife. The “Bowie Knife”, as it came to be called, gained its reputation the following year in the hands of James near Natchez in an incident known as the Sand Bar Fight. Although shot twice and stabbed several times, James was still able to fend off his attackers. The incident made both the man and the knife legends as word of the deadly fight spread. Demand for the “Bowie Knife” grew as others wanted to own such a formidable weapon.

James Bowie immigrated to Texas in 1830 after U.S. officials determined that many of his land claims were rooted in fraud. A charming and energetic man in his mid-thirties, Bowie visited San Antonio de Béxar where he met Ursula de Veramendi, the daughter of Juan Martín de Veramendi, vice governor of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. James and Ursula were married in 1831. Thus, Bowie had allied himself to one of the most powerful families in Texas and with the Tejano community. Tragically, his young wife and her parents died in Monclova in 1833 when a cholera epidemic swept across northern Mexico.

Relying on his old skills, Bowie speculated in Texas lands. He also searched for a lost silver mine thought to be located near the ruins of an old Spanish mission, Santa Cruz de San Sába. Although he never found the elusive treasure, Bowie won the admiration of his fellow citizens when he and his small party of prospectors held out for several days against a large band of hostile Indians who attacked their camp. The title of “Indian fighter” only added to his reputation.

Bowie’s role in the Texas Revolution extends beyond his well-known participation in the Battle of the Alamo. During the Siege of Béxar in October 1835, Bowie served on the staff of Stephen F. Austin, commander of the “Federal Army of Texas.” On the morning of October 28, troops under Colonels Bowie and James W. Fannin drove off a larger force of Mexican soldiers, winning the Battle of Concepcíon. On November 26, troops under Bowie helped capture a Mexican horse herd in what was to be called the Grass Fight. Bowie left the army and therefore missed the Battle of Béxar (December 5–10, 1835) in which the Texans defeated General Martín Perfecto de Cos and forced the Mexican garrison to withdraw below the Rio Grande.

In January 1836, Bowie returned to San Antonio at the request of General Sam Houston. Once there, he and Lieutenant Colonel James C. Neill, commander of the Alamo, agreed the place must be defended as it was clear that the Mexican Army planned to reoccupy Texas. “Colonel Neill and myself have come to the solemn resolution that we will rather die in these ditches than give up this post to the enemy,” Bowie informed the provisional government.

Neill’s departure from the Alamo on February 11, 1836, set the stage for a potentially serious struggle over command. Neill had left William Barret Travis, a lieutenant colonel in the newly formed Texas Army, in charge of the garrison, but the majority of the men wanted the popular “Colonel” Bowie to lead them. After holding an election, the two officers settled on a joint command with Travis in charge of the regulars and Bowie in command of the volunteers. This is how the situation stood on February 23, 1836, when General Antonio López de Santa Anna’s army arrived in San Antonio.

Ironically, on the second day of the siege, the man who had earned a reputation as a fierce fighter, became ill and was confined to his bed, too sick to participate in the greatest battle of his life. For years historians have puzzled over the exact nature of his illness, most agreeing that it was some form of pneumonia. Most would also agree, too, that Bowie’s association with the Battle of the Alamo guaranteed his status as a legendary frontiersman.


2. Theories of Homosexuality

It is possible to formulate a descriptive typology of etiological theories of homosexuality throughout modern history in which they generally fall into three broad categories: pathology, immaturity, and normal variation [14,15,16].

2.1. Theories of Pathology

These theories regard adult homosexuality as a disease, a condition deviating from “normal,” heterosexual development [17]. The presence of atypical gender behavior or feelings are symptoms of the disease or disorder to which mental health professionals need to attend. These theories hold that some internal defect or external pathogenic agent causes homosexuality and that such events can occur pre- or postnatally (i.e., intrauterine hormonal exposure, excessive mothering, inadequate or hostile fathering, sexual abuse, etc.). Theories of pathology tend to view homosexuality as a sign of a defect, or even as morally bad, with some of these theorists being quite open about their belief that homosexuality is a social evil. For example, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Edmund Bergler infamously wrote in a book for general audiences, “I have no bias against homosexuals for me they are sick people requiring medical help. Still, though I have no bias, I would say: Homosexuals are essentially disagreeable people, regardless of their pleasant or unpleasant outward manner. [their] shell is a mixture of superciliousness, fake aggression, and whimpering. Like all psychic masochists, they are subservient when confronted with a stronger person, merciless when in power, unscrupulous about trampling on a weaker person” [18], (pp. 28�).

2.2. Theories of Immaturity

These theories, usually psychoanalytic in nature, regard expressions of homosexual feelings or behavior at a young age as a normal step toward the development of adult heterosexuality [19,20]. Ideally, homosexuality should just be a passing phase that one outgrows. However, as a �velopmental arrest,” adult homosexuality is equated with stunted growth. Those who hold these theories tend to regard immaturity as relatively benign, or at least not as �” compared to those who theorize that homosexuality is a form of psychopathology.

2.3. Theories of Normal Variation

These theories treat homosexuality as a phenomenon that occurs naturally [21,22,23,24]. Such theories typically regard homosexual individuals as born different, but it is a natural difference affecting a minority of people, like left-handedness. The contemporary cultural belief that people are 𠇋orn gay” is a normal variation theory. As these theories equate the normal with the natural, they define homosexuality as good (or, at baseline, neutral). Such theories see no place for homosexuality in a psychiatric diagnostic manual.


Does Size Matter?

Above: Gil Hibben Expendables Bowie and a prop knife from the 1992 film Dracula.

Buffalo Bill Cody was said to have carried a Bowie knife with a 16-inch blade, and Confederate troops in the U.S. Civil War were said to have carried D-Guard Bowie knives of that length and sometimes longer. In a time when a good knife represented a somewhat sizable investment and it had to perform a variety of tasks, most Bowie knives were on the large side, with 12 inches being the maximum blade length.

Its versatility as a tool saw it replace the tomahawk that had been so popular in the eastern United States as settlers moved westward. Primarily intended as fighting knives, brass spines welded to the back of the blade and hand guards or knuckles appeared here and there. However, as firearms technology improved, the size of the Bowie knife seemed to become smaller, and by the 1880s, it seemed to be more of a handy and useful tool as opposed to a “sidearm” as it had been in the previous half-century.

That’s not to say that the knife ever dropped from common use. On the contrary, throughout Bowie knife history, its design went on to influence other knives and the men and companies who made them.

The sharpened top edge seemed to disappear as it was a detriment to skinning game, and certain states outlawed double-edged knives, but the clip point remained. To this day, it may be the most obvious sign that one is looking at a Bowie knife. Still, knife catalogs from the 19th century reveal dagger-type blades being advertised as “spear-point” or “San Francisco” Bowies.


James Bowie and the Sandbar Fight

James Bowie, that name may sound familiar to some.. Ever heard of the “Bowie Knife”, here is what one looks like:

Well James Bowie created the Bowie Knife and here is what James Bowie looked like, you know he is serious business because of those monster mutton chops:

What you may not know is the truly epic knife fight that took place between James Bowie and Major Norris Wright. Now when I say epic, I am not just throwing that around loosely, James Bowie was as tough as coffin nails.


Learn About The History Of Bowie Md

Situated in the center of Maryland State, Bowie is a city in Prince George's County, of the United States of America. Governor Samuel Ogle in 1745 built Belair estate that brought a significant settlement named Huntington. The rich soil in the area turned it a prime location for both food crops and tobacco production. Later in 1870, the site was chosen as a major rail junction. As of 2016, the area had a population of 58393 people making it the largest municipality in Prince George's County and the third largest city in the US state of Maryland.

The Origin of the name Bowie

Initially, Bowie was called Huntington, but later the station was named Bowie in honor of Oden Bowie who was the president of the railroad and governor of Maryland between 1869 to 1872. It began as a small train stop of the Annapolis and Elk Ridge Railroad and Potomac and Baltimore Railroad, but over the years, it has developed and grown to be the largest municipality in Prince George's County.

The economy

Bowie economy was depending on agriculture and slavery. The area had small farms and large tobacco plantation. In addition to the economy of the area was the region's proximity to Baltimore and Washington, D.C. However, in 1910 the station building was destroyed by the fire but was later rebuilt. Bowie is also known for having the largest number of museums. One of the most known sites is the Belair Mansion.

Early years

The Beliar Mansion was in Belair Estate, which was originally owned by Robert Carville of St. Mary's city. The property had grown from five hundred acre tract to 1410 acres when owned by Reverend Mr. Jacob Henderson who changed the name from Catton to Beliar. Later he sold it to Governor Samuel Ogle, and his son Governor Benjamin Ogle. Later James T. Woodward who was a wealthy banker bought the estate in 1898. Unfortunately, he passed on and left it to his nephew William Woodward, Sr, who became known for breeding racing horses. Unfortunately, it was closed following the death of his son. Nevertheless, it remains the oldest continually operating a thoroughbred horse farm in the country.

Development during and after the civil war

Bowie was directly between two great cities of Baltimore and Washington, D.C. making it develop naturally because of transportation issue surrounding it. It had the center on developing a railroad into the part of the county that extended into southern Maryland. Luckily, Col. William D. Bowie in 1853 he managed to convince the Maryland Legislature to charter the Potomac and Baltimore Railroad Company designed to serve Southern Maryland. Unfortunately, the plans were delayed by civil war. After the War Between the States, Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Company gained power in the Pennsylvania Railroad. They were allowed to build the long-sought line into southern Maryland.

The takeaway

Initial Bowie MD was a patchwork of farm and village but now is a vibrant city, with numerous developed projects turning it into a modern city. In addition, its heritage and history are still very rich and worth for visitor to visit and learn more about it.


Fast-food culture serves up super-size Americans

Stop blaming people or their genes--it's an abundance of unhealthy, heavily advertised, low-cost food that underlies the nation's obesity crisis.

December 2001, Vol 32, No. 11

America is overlooking the real cause of its ever-expanding waistline, said Kelly Brownell, PhD, at APA's 2001 Annual Convention. The problem isn't so much people's lack of self-control, he said. It's a "toxic food environment"--the strips of fast-food restaurants along America's roadways, the barrage of burger advertising on television and the rows of candies at the checkout counter of any given convenience store.

"Whoever thought you could go eat at a gas station?" said Brownell, a Yale University psychology professor, adding that, with a new concept being test-marketed, "While you're pumping your gas you punch in the Fritos, the Twinkies and the Coke, and somebody brings it to your car. So the physical activity required to go in and get it is eliminated."

To be sure, Brownell acknowledged, genes and self-control play a role in obesity and the diabetes and other health problems that result. But, in his view, both face a losing battle against the ubiquity of bad food. The problem with medical and psychological interventions for individuals, he said, is that the costs of treatment outweigh the benefits, and weight-gain relapse rates remain high.

What's needed instead, he said, are broader-scale policy fixes that promote healthier foods and behaviors across American society.

"It's important for us to look at this from a public health point-of-view, where we're not so concerned with how overweight an individual is, but how overweight the population is," said Brownell. "Genetics is what permits the problem to occur, but environment is what drives it."

Of particular concern to Brownell is America's passive acceptance of unhealthy food. Americans fail to recognize, for example, the possible damage done by such fast-food icons as Ronald McDonald. "We take Joe Camel off the billboard because it is marketing bad products to our children, but Ronald McDonald is considered cute," said Brownell. "How different are they in their impact, in what they're trying to get kids to do?"

Certain "toxic signs" alarm Brownell:

Unnutritious foods reign. High-fat, high-sugar foods are widely available, taste good and cost less than healthier foods. Vending machines are ubiquitous, Kentucky Fried Chicken delivers and most fast-food outlets now serve breakfast. "Could there be a better fat-delivery vehicle than a bacon-egg-and-cheese muffin?" said Brownell.

Serving sizes keep increasing. Buffets abound and food outlets offer "value meals," providing more food for less cost. 7-Eleven's Double Gulp serves up 64 ounces of soda, and "McDonald's has made 'super-size it' a verb."

The food industry has run amok. Advertisements for prepackaged and fast foods saturate the airwaves, newspapers and magazines. Colorfully packaged single-person servings make processed foods appealing.

Physical activity has declined. Most Americans get less exercise than ever--walking less and driving more.

As further evidence that environment is to blame, Brownell noted that obesity has risen notably in other countries, including China, and that migrants to Western countries have much higher obesity rates than their relatives back home.

Particularly vulnerable to the problem are American children, said Brownell. Soda companies and fast-food outlets increasingly ink contracts with schools and gear advertising to kids. "The most intrepid parents can't win this fight," he said.

That is, they can't win it alone. But, said Brownell, they might stand a chance through the following proposed policy changes:

Make activity more accessible, by, for example, building communities to allow more walking or biking.

Regulate TV food ads aimed at children and mandate equal time for pro-nutrition messages.

Ban fast foods and soft drinks from schools, instead forging school contracts with sports-related companies.

Restructure school lunch programs to include more healthy foods.

Subsidize healthy foods and drive down prices of fruits and vegetables by 70 percent.

Discourage consumption of poor foods through a "fat tax," earmarking the funds for nutrition and recreation.

Brownell believes such measures would take the blame off people with obesity and are the only "real path to doing something constructive about this problem."


They tried to keep their relationship as private as possible

Iman and Bowie approached their marriage as a relationship to be shared with each other, not a public eager to hear intimate details about the “Space Oddity” singer and Vogue cover star. Aside from rare occasions, the couple kept the press separate from their home life.

They were rarely photographed together, appearing as a couple only in one Vogue magazine shoot and for a Hello! interview in their New York apartment following the birth of their daughter Alexandria in 2000, which Iman described as one of “the happiest times in my life,” and an event that drew the couple closer than ever before. “There’s a joy or a contentment that’s almost palpable to both of us. Overnight, our lives had been enriched beyond belief.”

Of parenting their daughter, Iman once said that Bowie was “measured, sensible yet at the same time fun and relaxed with Lexi. I’m the disciplinarian.” What they both agreed on was keeping their home life as private as possible.

In a 2014 interview with The Guardian, Iman spoke of how they kept a low profile, regardless of where they were in the world. “We went this summer [to London]. And no one knew we were there!… Every day we went and did different things and the press never knew! It’s absurd this idea that celebrities can’t be anonymous. We even went to the London Eye. We queued separately, Lexi had a friend with her and they went with the bodyguard and then we all met on board.”

Quizzed over the whereabouts of her husband while attending a New York Valentine’s Day event solo in 2011, Iman told The Cut that they never celebrated the annual lovefest in public. “We never do Valentine’s dinner, because everybody, they look,” she said. “On Valentine’s, imagine me and David going to a restaurant! Like everybody’s going to say, 𠆍id they talk? Did they hold hands?’ Twenty years. We’ve been married 20 years!”

Iman and David Bowie at a fundraiser for The Urban League in New York City, Nov. 23, 1999

Photo: Iris Zimmerman/Online USA/Newsmakers


How Do You Pronounce "Bowie"?

To be fair, David Bowie himself wasn't overly concerned about the correct pronunciation, after jokingly telling BBC presenter Jeremy Paxman in 2000: "I don't even know how to pronounce it anymore. I've lost track."

As tributes continue to pour in around London, Berlin and New York for the British musician who died on January 10, pinnikity fans are taking to social media to correct those less knowledgeable on how to pronounce his last name.

One fan was clearly deeply upset about the ordeal, after posting on Twitter: "I really hope Bowie's headstone has 'The surname is pronounced like toe' written on it. Those people gotta learn."

I really hope Bowie's headstone has 'The surname is pronounced like toe' written on it. Those people gotta learn.

&mdash Philly Byrne (@PhilipNByrne) January 11, 2016

Whereas another fan pointed out the obvious.

Most celebrities have been very careful to say it right, whereas one radio presenter confused David Bowie with British Prime Minister David Cameron. Heart FM's Fiona Winchester accidentally announced the death of Cameron, saying: "David Cameron has died," before quickly realising her mistake.

What's perhaps even more confusing is that "Bowie" isn't, in fact, his real name. Born David Jones in 1947, he decided to change his name on September 16, 1965 to David Bowie, because of Davy Jones of The Monkees fame and "Jones [had] become a real shell."

In an interview in 1976 with American weekly People, the singer said that the name Bowie is "the ultimate American knife," and a "medium for a conglomerate of statements and illusions."

The "Bowie" knife, though, is named after an American chap called Jim Bowie, who hailed from Kentucky in 1976, known for his formidable fighting abilities after brawling with the local sheriff at the time, Norris Wright.

Finally, here's Bowie on "Bowie." That should settle it.


Watch the video: David Bowie Station To Station Live 1978