Siege of Fidenae, 435 or 426 B.C.

Siege of Fidenae, 435 or 426 B.C.

Siege of Fidenae, 435 or 426 B.C.

The siege of Fidenae (435 or 426 B.C.) saw the Romans capture the town only five miles upstream on the Tiber and eliminate the last Veientine enclave on the right bank of the Tiber.

Early in the Second Veientine War the Romans won a major victory close to the River Anio, which ended after the death of Lars Tolumnius, king of Veii. Two years of epidemics in Rome mean that they were not able to follow up on this victory. The Fidenates regained their confidence and began to raid Roman territory. They were then joined by the Veientines, and the combined army marched up to the gates of Rome, before retreating after the Romans formed a new army under the command of the Dictator Q. Servilius. The Romans followed the retreating Etrurians and inflicted a defeat on them close to Nomentum, to the north-east of Fidenae. After that battle the allies retreated back into Fidenea and prepared for a siege.

Fidenae was strongly fortified and well supplied, and the Romans knew that they had little chance of storming the town, or starving it out. The only weak fortifications were in an area that was naturally strong. The Romans did have one big advantage - Fidenae was only five miles from the city, and so the entire area was very well known to many in the army. Servilius decided to dig a tunnel up to the Citadel through the rock on the more weakly defended side of the town. Noisy attackers were made on the walls to conceal the tunnelling, and eventually the Romans were able to break into the Citadel, forcing the remaining defenders to surrender.

This siege may have effectively ended the Second Veientine War, but Livy records two sieges separated by nine years, one in 435 and one in 426. The events leading up to the two sieges are suspiciously similar, and it is generally believed that the second siege is a mistaken repeat of the first. Whichever case is true the result was that by 426 B.C. the Romans had eliminated the last Etruscan foothold on the east bank of the Tiber.

Roman Conquests: Italy, Ross Cowan. A look at the Roman conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the series of wars that saw Rome transformed from a small city state in central Italy into a power that was on the verge of conquering the ancient Mediterranean world. A lack of contemporary sources makes this a difficult period to write about, but Cowan has produced a convincing narrative without ignoring some of the complexity.

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Siege of Fidenae, 435 or 426 B.C. - History

The Samnite Wars (341-290 B.C.)

Toward the end of the 5th century, while Rome and the Latins were still defending themselves against the Volsci and the Aequi, the Romans began to expand at the expense of Etruscan states. Rome's incessant warfare and expansion during the republic has spawned modern debate about the nature of Roman imperialism. Ancient Roman historians, who were often patriotic senators, believed that Rome always waged just wars in self-defense, and they wrote their accounts accordingly, distorting or suppressing facts that did not fit this view. The modern thesis of Roman defensive imperialism, which followed this ancient bias, is now largely discredited. Only the fighting in the 5th century B.C. and the later wars against the Gauls can clearly be so characterized. Rome's relentless expansion was more often responsible for provoking its neighbours to fight in self-defense. Roman consuls, who led the legions into battle, often advocated war because victory gained them personal glory. Members of the centuriate assembly, which, as noted above, decided war and peace, may sometimes have voted for war in expectation that it would lead to personal enrichment through seizure and distribution of booty. The evidence concerning Roman expansion during the early republic is poor, but the fact that Rome created 14 new rustic tribes during the years 387-241 B.C. suggests that population growth could have been a driving force. Furthermore, Romans living on the frontier may have strongly favoured war against restless neighbours, such as Gauls and Samnites. The animal husbandry of the latter involved seasonal migrations between summer uplands and winter lowlands, which caused friction between them and settled Roman farmers.

Though the Romans did not wage wars for religious ends, they often used religious means to assist their war effort. The fetial priests were used for the solemn official declaration of war. According to fetial law, Rome could enjoy divine favour only if it waged just wars—that is, wars of self-defense. In later practice, this often simply meant that Rome maneuvered other states into declaring war upon it. Then Rome followed with its declaration, acting technically in self-defense this strategy had the effect of boosting Roman morale and sometimes swaying international public opinion.

Rome's first major war against an organized state was fought with Fidenae (437-426 B.C.), a town located just upstream from Rome. After it had been conquered, its land was annexed to Roman territory. Rome next fought a long and difficult war against Veii, an important Etruscan city not far from Fidenae. Later Roman historians portrayed the war as having lasted 10 years (406-396 B.C.), patterning it after the mythical Trojan War of the Greeks. After its conquest, Veii's tutelary goddess, Queen Juno, was solemnly summoned to Rome. The city's territory was annexed, increasing Roman territory by 84 percent and forming four new rustic tribes. During the wars against Fidenae and Veii, Rome increased the number of military tribunes with consular power from three to four and then from four to six. In 406 B.C. Rome instituted military pay, and in 403 B.C. it increased the size of its cavalry. The conquest of Veii opened southern Etruria to further Roman expansion. During the next few years, Rome proceeded to found colonies at Nepet and Sutrium and forced the towns of Falerii and Capena to become its allies. Yet, before Roman strength increased further, a marauding Gallic tribe swept down from the Po River valley, raided Etruria, and descended upon Rome. The Romans were defeated in the battle of the Allia River in 390 B.C., and the Gauls captured and sacked the city they departed only after they had received ransom in gold. Henceforth the Romans greatly feared and respected the potential strength of the Gauls. Later Roman historians, however, told patriotic tales about the commanders Marcus Manlius and Marcus Furius Camillus in order to mitigate the humiliation of the defeat.

Roman power had suffered a great reversal, and 40 years of hard fighting in Latium and Etruria were required to restore it fully. The terms of the second treaty between Rome and Carthage (348 B.C.) show Rome's sphere of influence to be about the same as it had been at the time of the first treaty in 509, but Rome's position in Latium was now far stronger.

During the 40 years after the second treaty with Carthage, Rome rapidly rose to a position of hegemony in Italy south of the Po valley. Much of the fighting during this time consisted of three wars against the Samnites, who initially were not politically unified but coexisted as separate Oscan-speaking tribes of the central and southern Apennines. Rome's expansion was probably responsible for uniting these tribes militarily to oppose a common enemy. Both the rugged terrain and the tough Samnite soldiers proved to be formidable challenges, which forced Rome to adopt military innovations that were later important for conquering the Mediterranean.


Imperial Rome was the largest city the world had ever seen. At its peak in the fourth century A.D., it was home to more than a million people. Not until the rise of Victorian London in the 1800s did a city surpass its population. Because of its size and importance, Rome may be one of the most-studied cities in history.

The Roman army was the largest and meanest fighting force in the ancient world. One of the main reasons Rome became so powerful was because of the strength of its army. The army was very advanced for its time. The soldiers were the best trained, they had the best weapons and the best armour.


Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 4 Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D., Ed.

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[ 6 ] The pestilence was worse next year, when Gaius Julius (for the second time) and Lucius Verginius were the consuls, and caused such fears and ravages in the City and the country that not only did [ 7?? ] no one go out beyond the Roman marches to pillage, nor either patricians or plebs have any thought of waging war, but the men of Fidenae, who at first had kept to their mountains or their city walls, actually came down into Roman territory, bent on plunder. [ 8 ] Then, when they had called in an army from Veii —for the Faliscans could not be driven into renewing the war either by the calamity of the Romans or the entreaties of their allies, —the two peoples crossed the Anio and set up their standards not far from the Colline Gate. [ 9 ] The consternation in the City was therefore no less than in the fields the consul Julius disposed his troops on the rampart and walls, and Verginius took counsel with the senate in the temple of Quirinus. [ 10 ] It was resolved that Quintus Servilius, whose surname some give as Priscus, others as Structus, should be appointed dictator. Verginius delayed till he could consult his colleague then, with his consent, he that night named the dictator, who appointed as his master of the horse Postumus Aebutius Helva.

3 i.e. duumviri sacrorum, in charge of the Sibylline books, from which they derived the form of prayer used in this service.

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Roman Timeline of the 5th Century BC

The Twelve Tables are the first attempt to make a law code, and remained the only attempt for nearly one thousand years.

Typically, Roman prisons were not used to punish criminals, but instead served only to hold people awaiting trial or execution.

The Tribune of the Plebes (tribunus plebis) was a magistracy established in 494 BC. It was created to provide the people with a direct representative magistrate.

A copy of the acts of the Deified Augustus by which he placed the whole world under the sovereignty of the Roman people.

This book reveals how an empire that stretched from Glasgow to Aswan in Egypt could be ruled from a single city and still survive more than a thousand years.

This second edition includes a new introduction that explores the consequences for government and the governing classes of the replacement of the Republic by the rule of emperors.

During the period, the government of the Roman empire met the most prolonged crisis of its history and survived. This text is an early attempt at an inclusive study of the origins and evolutions of this transformation in the ancient world.

Swords Against the Senate describes the first three decades of Rome's century-long civil war that transformed it from a republic to an imperial autocracy, from the Rome of citizen leaders to the Rome of decadent emperor thugs.

Rome's first emperor, Augustus, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, has probably had the most lasting effect on history of all rulers of the classical world. This book focuses on his rise to power and on the ways in which he then maintained authority throughout his reign.


Military Technology: Using a Cloud of Dust in Ancient Warfare

In the present age of technology, imagining the role that such a simple element as dust played in ancient warfare can be difficult. But what we regard as a mere nuisance often helped decide victory or defeat on the battlefields and during the military campaigns of the classical era.

Ancient Rome’s greatest defeat arrived in a cloud of dust. Nearly half a millennium after the 216 b.c. Battle of Cannae, historian Lucius Annaeus Florus wrote: ‘The crafty general [Hannibal] in his observation of the open plain of that region, because of the severe sun there, and very much dust, and the wind always blowing from the east, prepared his battle line so that the Romans would have dust, sun and wind…directed against their faces while the battle raged. With the aid of the elements, Hannibal’s forces crushed their enemy.

Such a costly lesson was not to be forgotten. The first century a.d. military writer Sextus Julius Frontinus wrote of it in his Stratagems, and centuries later, in the only completely intact work to have survived on Roman military science, Flavius Vegetius Renatus reflected on the enduring importance of Hannibal’s lesson. In discussing preparation for battle, Vegetius remarked that even inexperienced generals usually know to pay attention to three things before deploying their battle lines: sun, dust, and wind. However, he added, the truly prudent commander also considers how these elements might come into play later in the day as the battle rages on. Therefore the lines should be so arranged as to keep sun, wind, and dust behind the troops and in the faces of the enemy.

Ancient literature contains many examples in which clouds of dust played a role. Dust was such a common feature of the battlefield that it often became a stock image for literary accounts of warfare. Homer’s Iliad frequently conjures the image of dust hanging heavy over the field of battle as the Greeks sought to capture Troy. Soldiers fleeing in panic raised clouds of dust, as did horses and chariots.

Rome’s greatest writer, Virgil, followed the Homeric model in his own epic nationalist tale, the Aeneid. Virgil wrote that as pious Aeneas and his fellow Trojan refugees engaged in the final conflict with the Latins, led by Turnus,

A cloud of blinding dust is rais’d around,
Labors beneath their feet the trembling
ground.

In ancient times, and indeed throughout most of military history, the foremost importance of dust was in locating the enemy. First-century a.d. poet Marcus Annaeus Lucanus offered the following image of a cloud of dust warning Pompey the Great’s ally Domitius, at Corfinium, of the approach of Julius Caesar’s troops:

When from far the plain
Rolled up a dusty cloud, beneath whose veil
The sheen of armour glistening in the sun,
Revealed a marching host.

What literature preserved for the imagination, the ordinary foot soldier knew as a blinding, choking reality. Attention to the dust raised by troop movements, however, could mean the difference between victory and defeat — life and death. The historian par excellence of the Augustan age, Livy, offered compelling evidence. He recorded how in 306 b.c., Samnites were besieging a Roman army led by Counsel Publius Cornelius Arvina when they learned of the approach of a second enemy force, led by Counsel Quintus Marcius Tremulus. Briefly turning their backs on Cornelius, they decided to ambush the approaching troops:

Thirty thousand Samnites were killed, according to Livy, in a defeat that was to a large degree attributable to clouds of dust betraying their plans.

In addition to indicating the presence of the enemy, dust was used, albeit imperfectly, to calculate the size, nature, and movement of opposing forces. There has been some speculation that high, thin clouds of dust correlated with the presence of cavalry, while dense, lower clouds could be associated with infantry.

Of course, the tendency to interpret clouds of dust in predictable ways could be used to advantage by an enterprising commander. Livy recounted a notable incident from Rome’s 293 b.c. campaign against the Samnites. The Romans had divided their forces, with Papirius outside Aquilonia and Carvilius twenty miles away outside Cominium, and planned to launch coordinated attacks against the Samnite towns. Before engaging the enemy forces at Aquilonia, Papirius had a legate and three auxiliary cohorts lead his army’s mules along a hidden route to a nearby hill. During the subsequent fierce battle, on the Samnites’ flank appeared a cloud of dust as though an enormous column of men were in motion to attack, Livy wrote. It was, however, the auxiliaries, who were riding the mules while dragging leafy boughs behind the beasts. Confusion swept through the Samnite ranks, as well as through the Romans’, as it appeared that a massive army had raised the cloud of dust. Papirius did his best to reinforce that impression by shouting loudly, Cominium has fallen, my victorious colleague is coming on the field, do your best to win the victory before the glory of doing so falls to the other army! He then ordered his troops to open ranks, and the Roman cavalry swept through and routed the enemy.

While dust clouds often betrayed enemy movements, they could also be important in finding a battle already underway. Thucydides, in his fifth century b.c. account of the Peloponnesian War, observed how the Corinthians stationed at Cenchreae correctly interpreted the dust clouds they saw as indicating the place of battle. As a result they hurried to the rescue of their comrades there.

Similarly, Caesar, during his first British expedition, was alerted to his troops’ peril by a cloud of dust. After he had sent a legion out from his camp to forage for corn, guards reported to him the presence of a large cloud of dust in the direction that the legion had headed. According to the great commander’s own account: Caesar guessed the truth — that the natives had hatched a new scheme. He set out with troops toward the dust cloud and found the legion hard-pressed by Britons, who broke off their attacks upon his arrival.

Once battle was joined, the resulting dust could prove a serious obstacle to both armies. Livy recounted the 426 b.c. Battle of Fidenae between the Romans and the Etruscans during which dust and smoke caused widespread confusion. The Romans had been enjoying the better of the fight at Fidenae when suddenly Etruscan reinforcements armed with firebrands, and all waving blazing torches sallied forth. Soon both sides were so armed. In the swirl and clash of men and horses a great cloud of dust and smoke nearly blinded both sides.

In the arid Middle East, swirling dust and sand complicated matters for both sides during the Jewish Revolt of a.d. 66-73. The Galilean general-turned-historian Flavius Josephus recorded how thick dust complicated Roman operations in the siege and conquest of Gamala. Later, during the battles at Jerusalem, Josephus described how the armies also were now mixed one among another, and the dust that was raised so far hindered them from seeing one another, and the noise that was made so far hindered them from hearing one another, that neither side could discern an enemy from a friend.

For the side losing an engagement, dust could still save the day. Diodorus Siculus, writing his universal history in the late first century b.c., attributed to the Persian general Darius the strategic use of dust to rescue his army. During his war against Alexander the Great in 331-330 b.c., Darius’ force was routed. As the Persian cavalry retreated in panic, with Alexander’s soldiers in close pursuit, the dust clouds became so thick that the victors found it impossible to tell in which direction their foes were fleeing. Diodorus thought that Darius had cleverly used the cover of the dust not to retreat, but rather to swing around and bring his troops to the safety of towns behind the Macedonian lines. Though the historian was probably factually wrong in his account, there is no doubt that on occasion troops fled to safety under the cover of a battle-driven dusty haze.

At the 48 b.c. Battle of Pharsalus, dust revealed to Pompey the Great that his cause was lost. Although outnumbered, Caesar thoroughly outgeneraled his rival. Encamped in a favorable position with a force much larger than Caesar’s, Pompey had elected to offer battle. Caesar naturally accepted. Pompey relied on his superiority in number of cavalry to prevail against Caesar’s right wing. Initially, Pompey’s seven thousand cavalrymen were successful, routing Caesar’s one thousand horsemen. But then the six cohorts that Caesar had placed in reserve on his flank swung into action, surprising Pompey’s cavalry. Thanks to that timely maneuver, the fortunes of battle were stunningly reversed.

The second-century Greek biographer Plutarch tried to imagine Pompey’s reaction as his cavalry’s early-battle flank attack failed. In his Life of Pompey, he recounted that when Pompey, by the dust flying in the air, conjectured the fate of his horse, it was very hard to say what his thoughts or intentions were, but looking like one distracted and beside himself, and without any recollection or reflection that he was Pompey the Great, he retired slowly towards his camp, without speaking a word to any man…. Caesar’s rival escaped to Egypt where he was murdered. His fate, like that of many a leader before him, had been written in the dust.

This article was written by Gregory G. Bolich and originally published in the Autumn 2004 edition of MHQ. For more great articles, subscribe to MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History today!


Contents

The Babylonians were famous for hepatoscopy. This practice is mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel 21:21:

"For the king of Babylon stands at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination he shakes the arrows, he consults the household idols, he looks at the liver."

The Nineveh library texts name more than a dozen liver-related terms. The liver was considered the source of the blood and hence the basis of life itself. From this belief, the Babylonians thought they could discover the will of the gods by examining the livers of carefully selected sheep. A priest known as a bārû was specially trained to interpret the "signs" of the liver, and Babylonian scholars assembled a monumental compendium of omens called the Bārûtu. The liver was divided into sections, with each section representing a particular deity.

One Babylonian clay model of a sheep's liver, dated between 1900 and 1600 BC, is conserved in the British Museum. [1] The model was used for divination, which was important to Mesopotamian medicine. This practice was conducted by priests and seers who looked for signs in the stars, or in the organs of sacrificed animals, to tell them things about a patient’s illness. Wooden pegs were placed in the holes of the clay tablet to record features found in a sacrificed animal's liver. The seer then used these features to predict the course of a patient's illness.

Haruspicy was part of a larger study of organs for the sake of divination, called extispicy, paying particular attention to the positioning of the organs and their shape. There are many records of different peoples using the liver and spleen of various domestic and wild animals to forecast weather. There are hundreds of ancient architectural objects, labyrinths composed of cobblestones in the northern countries that are considered to be a model of the intestines of the sacrificial animal, i.e. the colon of ruminants.

The Assyro-Babylonian tradition was also adopted in Hittite religion. At least thirty-six liver-models have been excavated at Hattusa. Of these, the majority are inscribed in Akkadian, but a few examples also have inscriptions in the native Hittite language, indicating the adoption of haruspicy as part of the native, vernacular cult. [2]


Siege of Fidenae, 435 or 426 B.C. - History

Our free eBook Ten Top Biblical Archaeology Discoveries brings together the exciting worlds of archaeology and the Bible! Learn the fascinating insights gained from artifacts and ruins, like the Pool of Siloam in Jerusalem, where the Gospel of John says Jesus miraculously restored the sight of the blind man, and the Tel Dan inscription—the first historical evidence of King David outside the Bible.

53 Figures: The Biblical and Archaeological Evidence

1. Shishak (= Sheshonq I), pharaoh, r. 945–924, 1 Kings 11:40 and 14:25, in his inscriptions, including the record of his military campaign in Palestine in his 924 B.C.E. inscription on the exterior south wall of the Temple of Amun at Karnak in Thebes. See OROT, pp. 10, 31–32, 502 note 1 many references to him in Third, indexed on p. 520 Kenneth A. Kitchen, review of IBP, SEE-J Hiphil 2 (2005), www.see-j.net/index.php/hiphil/article/viewFile/19/17, bottom of p. 3, which is briefly mentioned in “Sixteen,” p. 43 n. 22. (Note: The name of this pharaoh can be spelled Sheshonq or Shoshenq.)

Sheshonq is also referred to in a fragment of his victory stele discovered at Megiddo containing his cartouche. See Robert S. Lamon and Geoffrey M. Shipton, Megiddo I: Seasons of 1925–34, Strata I–V. (Oriental Institute Publications no. 42 Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939), pp. 60–61, fig. 70 Graham I. Davies, Megiddo (Cities of the Biblical World Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 1986), pp. 89 fig. 18, 90 OROT, p. 508 n. 68 IBP, p. 137 n. 119. (Note: The name of this pharaoh can be spelled Sheshonq or Shoshenq.)

Egyptian pharaohs had several names, including a throne name. It is known that the throne name of Sheshonq I, when translated into English, means, “Bright is the manifestation of Re, chosen of Amun/Re.” Sheshonq I’s inscription on the wall of the Temple of Amun at Karnak in Thebes (mentioned above) celebrates the victories of his military campaign in the Levant, thus presenting the possibility of his presence in that region. A small Egyptian scarab containing his exact throne name, discovered as a surface find at Khirbat Hamra Ifdan, now documents his presence at or near that location. This site is located along the Wadi Fidan, in the region of Faynan in southern Jordan.

As for the time period, disruption of copper production at Khirbet en-Nahas, also in the southern Levant, can be attributed to Sheshonq’s army, as determined by stratigraphy, high-precision radiocarbon dating, and an assemblage of Egyptian amulets dating to Sheshonq’s time. His army seems to have intentionally disrupted copper production, as is evident both at Khirbet en-Nahas and also at Khirbat Hamra Ifdan, where the scarab was discovered.

As for the singularity of this name in this remote locale, it would have been notable to find any Egyptian scarab there, much less one containing the throne name of this conquering Pharaoh this unique discovery admits no confusion with another person. See Thomas E. Levy, Stefan Münger, and Mohammad Najjar, “A Newly Discovered Scarab of Sheshonq I: Recent Iron Age Explorations in Southern Jordan. Antiquity Project Gallery,” Antiquity (2014) online: http://journal.antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/levy341.

2. So (= Osorkon IV), pharaoh, r. 730–715, 2 Kings 17:4 only, which calls him “So, king of Egypt” (OROT, pp. 15–16). K. A. Kitchen makes a detailed case for So being Osorkon IV in Third, pp. 372–375. See Raging Torrent, p. 106 under “Shilkanni.”

3. Tirhakah (= Taharqa), pharaoh, r. 690–664, 2 Kings 19:9, etc. in many Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions Third, pp. 387–395. For mention of Tirhakah in Assyrian inscriptions, see those of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal in Raging Torrent, pp. 138–143, 145, 150–153, 155, 156 ABC, p. 247 under “Terhaqah.” The Babylonian chronicle also refers to him (Raging Torrent, p. 187). On Tirhakah as prince, see OROT, p. 24.

4. Necho II (= Neco II), pharaoh, r. 610–595, 2 Chronicles 35:20, etc., in inscriptions of the Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal (ANET, pp. 294–297) and the Esarhaddon Chronicle (ANET, p. 303). See also Raging Torrent, pp. 189–199, esp. 198 OROT, p. 504 n. 26 Third, p. 407 ABC, p. 232.

5. Hophra (= Apries = Wahibre), pharaoh, r. 589–570, Jeremiah 44:30, in Egyptian inscriptions, such as the one describing his being buried by his successor, Aḥmose II (= Amasis II) (Third, p. 333 n. 498), with reflections in Babylonian inscriptions regarding Nebuchadnezzar’s defeat of Hophra in 572 and replacing him on the throne of Egypt with a general, Aḥmes (= Amasis), who later rebelled against Babylonia and was suppressed (Raging Torrent, p. 222). See OROT, pp. 9, 16, 24 Third, p. 373 n. 747, 407 and 407 n. 969 ANET, p. 308 D. J. Wiseman, Chronicles of Chaldaean Kings (626–556 B.C.) in the British Museum (London: The Trustees of the British Museum, 1956), pp. 94-95. Cf. ANEHST, p. 402. (The index of Third, p. 525, distinguishes between an earlier “Wahibre i” [Third, p. 98] and the 26th Dynasty’s “Wahibre ii” [= Apries], r. 589–570.)

6. Mesha, king, r. early to mid-9th century, 2 Kings 3:4–27, in the Mesha Inscription, which he caused to be written, lines 1–2 Dearman, Studies, pp. 97, 100–101 IBP, pp. 95–108, 238 “Sixteen,” p. 43.

ARAM-DAMASCUS

7. Hadadezer, king, r. early 9th century to 844/842, 1 Kings 22:3, etc., in Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser III and also, I am convinced, in the Melqart stele. The Hebrew Bible does not name him, referring to him only as “the King of Aram” in 1 Kings 22:3, 31 2 Kings chapter 5, 6:8–23. We find out this king’s full name in some contemporaneous inscriptions of Shalmaneser III, king of Assyria (r. 858–824), such as the Black Obelisk (Raging Torrent, pp. 22–24). At Kurkh, a monolith by Shalmaneser III states that at the battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.E.), he defeated “Adad-idri [the Assyrian way of saying Hadadezer] the Damascene,” along with “Ahab the Israelite” and other kings (Raging Torrent, p. 14 RIMA 3, p. 23, A.0.102.2, col. ii, lines 89b–92). “Hadadezer the Damascene” is also mentioned in an engraving on a statue of Shalmaneser III at Aššur (RIMA 3, p. 118, A.0.102.40, col. i, line 14). The same statue engraving later mentions both Hadadezer and Hazael together (RIMA 3, p. 118, col. i, lines 25–26) in a topical arrangement of worst enemies defeated that is not necessarily chronological.

On the long-disputed readings of the Melqart stele, which was discovered in Syria in 1939, see “Corrections,” pp. 69–85, which follows the closely allied readings of Frank Moore Cross and Gotthard G. G. Reinhold. Those readings, later included in “Sixteen,” pp. 47–48, correct the earlier absence of this Hadadezer in IBP (notably on p. 237, where he is not to be confused with the tenth-century Hadadezer, son of Rehob and king of Zobah).

8. Ben-hadad, son of Hadadezer, r. or served as co-regent 844/842, 2 Kings 6:24, etc., in the Melqart stele, following the readings of Frank Moore Cross and Gotthard G. G. Reinhold and Cross’s 2003 criticisms of a different reading that now appears in COS, vol. 2, pp. 152–153 (“Corrections,” pp. 69–85). Several kings of Damascus bore the name Bar-hadad (in their native Aramaic, which is translated as Ben-hadad in the Hebrew Bible), which suggests adoption as “son” by the patron deity Hadad. This designation might indicate that he was the crown prince and/or co-regent with his father Hadadezer. It seems likely that Bar-hadad/Ben-hadad was his father’s immediate successor as king, as seems to be implied by the military policy reversal between 2 Kings 6:3–23 and 6:24. It was this Ben-Hadad, the son of Hadadezer, whom Hazael assassinated in 2 Kings 8:7–15 (quoted in Raging Torrent, p. 25). The mistaken disqualification of this biblical identification in the Melqart stele in IBP, p. 237, is revised to a strong identification in that stele in “Corrections,” pp. 69–85 “Sixteen,” p. 47.

9. Hazael, king, r. 844/842–ca. 800, 1 Kings 19:15, 2 Kings 8:8, etc., is documented in four kinds of inscriptions: 1) The inscriptions of Shalmaneser III call him “Hazael of Damascus” (Raging Torrent, pp. 23–26, 28), for example the inscription on the Kurbail Statue (RIMA 3, p. 60, line 21). He is also referred to in 2) the Zakkur stele from near Aleppo, in what is now Syria, and in 3) bridle inscriptions, i.e., two inscribed horse blinders and a horse frontlet discovered on Greek islands, and in 4) inscribed ivories seized as Assyrian war booty (Raging Torrent, p. 35). All are treated in IBP, pp. 238–239, and listed in “Sixteen,” p. 44. Cf. “Corrections,” pp. 101–103.

10. Ben-hadad, son of Hazael, king, r. early 8th century, 2 Kings 13:3, etc., in the Zakkur stele from near Aleppo. In lines 4–5, it calls him “Bar-hadad, son of Hazael, the king of Aram” (IBP, p. 240 “Sixteen,” p. 44 Raging Torrent, p. 38 ANET, p. 655: COS, vol. 2, p. 155). On the possibility of Ben-hadad, son of Hazael, being the “Mari” in Assyrian inscriptions, see Raging Torrent, pp. 35–36.

11. Rezin (= Raḥianu), king, r. mid-8th century to 732, 2 Kings 15:37, etc., in the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria (in these inscriptions, Raging Torrent records frequent mention of Rezin in pp. 51–78) OROT, p. 14. Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III refer to “Rezin” several times, “Rezin of Damascus” in Annal 13, line 10 (ITP, pp. 68–69), and “the dynasty of Rezin of Damascus” in Annal 23, line 13 (ITP, pp. 80–81). Tiglath-pileser III’s stele from Iran contains an explicit reference to Rezin as king of Damascus in column III, the right side, A: “[line 1] The kings of the land of Hatti (and of) the Aramaeans of the western seashore . . . [line 4] Rezin of Damascus” (ITP, pp. 106–107).

NORTHERN KINGDOM OF ISRAEL

12. Omri, king, r. 884–873, 1 Kings 16:16, etc., in Assyrian inscriptions and in the Mesha Inscription. Because he founded a famous dynasty which ruled the northern kingdom of Israel, the Assyrians refer not only to him as a king of Israel (ANET, pp. 280, 281), but also to the later rulers of that territory as kings of “the house of Omri” and that territory itself literally as “the house of Omri” (Raging Torrent, pp. 34, 35 ANET, pp. 284, 285). Many a later king of Israel who was not his descendant, beginning with Jehu, was called “the son of Omri” (Raging Torrent, p. 18). The Mesha Inscription also refers to Omri as “the king of Israel” in lines 4–5, 7 (Dearman, Studies, pp. 97, 100–101 COS, vol. 2, p. 137 IBP, pp. 108–110, 216 “Sixteen,” p. 43.

13. Ahab, king, r. 873–852, 1 Kings 16:28, etc., in the Kurkh Monolith by his enemy, Shalmaneser III of Assyria. There, referring to the battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.E.), Shalmaneser calls him “Ahab the Israelite” (Raging Torrent, pp. 14, 18–19 RIMA 3, p. 23, A.0.102.2, col. 2, lines 91–92 ANET, p. 279 COS, vol. 2, p. 263).

14. Jehu, king, r. 842/841–815/814, 1 Kings 19:16, etc., in inscriptions of Shalmaneser III. In these, “son” means nothing more than that he is the successor, in this instance, of Omri (Raging Torrent, p. 20 under “Ba’asha . . . ” and p. 26). A long version of Shalmaneser III’s annals on a stone tablet in the outer wall of the city of Aššur refers to Jehu in col. 4, line 11, as “Jehu, son of Omri” (Raging Torrent, p. 28 RIMA 3, p. 54, A.0.102.10, col. 4, line 11 cf. ANET, p. 280, the parallel “fragment of an annalistic text”). Also, on the Kurba’il Statue, lines 29–30 refer to “Jehu, son of Omri” (RIMA 3, p. 60, A.0.102.12, lines 29–30).

In Shalmaneser III’s Black Obelisk, current scholarship regards the notation over relief B, depicting payment of tribute from Israel, as referring to “Jehu, son of Omri” (Raging Torrent, p. 23 RIMA 3, p. 149, A.0. 102.88), but cf. P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., “‘Yaw, Son of ‘Omri’: A Philological Note on Israelite Chronology,” Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 216 (1974): pp. 5–7.

15. Joash (= Jehoash), king, r. 805–790, 2 Kings 13:9, etc., in the Tell al-Rimaḥ inscription of Adad-Nirari III, king of Assyria (r. 810–783), which mentions “the tribute of Joash [= Iu’asu] the Samarian” (Stephanie Page, “A Stela of Adad-Nirari III and Nergal-Ereš from Tell Al Rimaḥ,” Iraq 30 [1968]: pp. 142–145, line 8, Pl. 38–41 RIMA 3, p. 211, line 8 of A.0.104.7 Raging Torrent, pp. 39–41).

16. Jeroboam II, king, r. 790–750/749, 2 Kings 13:13, etc., in the seal of his royal servant Shema, discovered at Megiddo (WSS, p. 49 no. 2 IBP, pp. 133–139, 217 “Sixteen,” p. 46).

17. Menahem, king, r. 749–738, 2 Kings 15:14, etc., in the Calah Annals of Tiglath-pileser III. Annal 13, line 10 refers to “Menahem of Samaria” in a list of kings who paid tribute (ITP, pp. 68–69, Pl. IX). Tiglath-pileser III’s stele from Iran, his only known stele, refers explicitly to Menahem as king of Samaria in column III, the right side, A: “[line 1] The kings of the land of Hatti (and of) the Aramaeans of the western seashore . . . [line 5] Menahem of Samaria.” (ITP, pp. 106–107). See also Raging Torrent, pp. 51, 52, 54, 55, 59 ANET, p. 283.

18. Pekah, king, r. 750(?)–732/731, 2 Kings 15:25, etc., in the inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III. Among various references to “Pekah,” the most explicit concerns the replacement of Pekah in Summary Inscription 4, lines 15–17: “[line 15] . . . The land of Bit-Humria . . . . [line 17] Peqah, their king [I/they killed] and I installed Hoshea [line 18] [as king] over them” (ITP, pp. 140–141 Raging Torrent, pp. 66–67).

19. Hoshea, king, r. 732/731–722, 2 Kings 15:30, etc., in Tiglath-pileser’s Summary Inscription 4, described in preceding note 18, where Hoshea is mentioned as Pekah’s immediate successor.

20. Sanballat “I”, governor of Samaria under Persian rule, ca. mid-fifth century, Nehemiah 2:10, etc., in a letter among the papyri from the Jewish community at Elephantine in Egypt (A. E. Cowley, ed., Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1923 reprinted Osnabrück, Germany: Zeller, 1967), p. 114 English translation of line 29, and p. 118 note regarding line 29 ANET, p. 492.

Also, the reference to “[ ]ballat,” most likely Sanballat, in Wadi Daliyeh bulla WD 22 appears to refer to the biblical Sanballat as the father of a governor of Samaria who succeeded him in the first half of the fourth century. As Jan Dušek shows, it cannot be demonstrated that any Sanballat II and III existed, which is the reason for the present article’s quotation marks around the “I” in Sanballat “I” see Jan Dušek, “Archaeology and Texts in the Persian Period: Focus on Sanballat,” in Martti Nissinen, ed., Congress Volume: Helsinki 2010 (Boston: Brill. 2012), pp. 117–132.

SOUTHERN KINGDOM OF JUDAH

21. David, king, r. ca. 1010–970, 1 Samuel 16:13, etc. in three inscriptions. Most notable is the victory stele in Aramaic known as the “house of David” inscription, discovered at Tel Dan Avraham Biran and Joseph Naveh, “An Aramaic Stele from Tel Dan,” IEJ 43 (1993), pp. 81–98, and idem, “The Tel Dan Inscription: A New Fragment,” IEJ 45 (1995), pp. 1–18. An ancient Aramaic word pattern in line 9 designates David as the founder of the dynasty of Judah in the phrase “house of David” (2 Sam 2:11 and 5:5 Gary A. Rendsburg, “On the Writing ביתדיד [BYTDWD] in the Aramaic Inscription from Tel Dan,” IEJ 45 [1995], pp. 22–25 Raging Torrent, p. 20, under “Ba’asha . . .” IBP, pp. 110–132, 265–77 “Sixteen,” pp. 41–43).

In the second inscription, the Mesha Inscription, the phrase “house of David” appears in Moabite in line 31 with the same meaning: that he is the founder of the dynasty. There David’s name appears with only its first letter destroyed, and no other letter in that spot makes sense without creating a very strained, awkward reading (André Lemaire, “‘House of David’ Restored in Moabite Inscription,” BAR 20, no. 3 [May/June 1994]: pp. 30–37. David’s name also appears in line 12 of the Mesha Inscription (Anson F. Rainey, “Mesha‘ and Syntax,” in J. Andrew Dearman and M. Patrick Graham, eds., The Land That I Will Show You: Essays on the History and Archaeology of the Ancient Near East in Honor of J. Maxwell Miller. (JSOT Supplement series, no. 343 Sheffield, England:Sheffield Academic, 2001), pp. 287–307 IBP, pp. 265–277 “Sixteen,” pp. 41–43).

The third inscription, in Egyptian, mentions a region in the Negev called “the heights of David” after King David (Kenneth A. Kitchen, “A Possible Mention of David in the Late Tenth Century B.C.E., and Deity *Dod as Dead as the Dodo?” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 76 [1997], pp. 39–41 IBP, p. 214 note 3, which is revised in “Corrections,” pp. 119–121 “Sixteen,” p. 43).

In the table on p. 46 of BAR, David is listed as king of Judah. According to 2 Samuel 5:5, for his first seven years and six months as a monarch, he ruled only the southern kingdom of Judah. We have no inscription that refers to David as king over all Israel (that is, the united kingdom) as also stated in 2 Sam 5:5.

22. Uzziah (= Azariah), king, r. 788/787–736/735, 2 Kings 14:21, etc., in the inscribed stone seals of two of his royal servants: Abiyaw and Shubnayaw (more commonly called Shebanyaw) WSS, p. 51 no. 4 and p. 50 no. 3, respectively IBP, pp. 153–159 and 159–163, respectively, and p. 219 no. 20 (a correction to IBP is that on p. 219, references to WSS nos. 3 and 4 are reversed) “Sixteen,” pp. 46–47. Cf. also his secondary burial inscription from the Second Temple era (IBP, p. 219 n. 22).

23. Ahaz (= Jehoahaz), king, r. 742/741–726, 2 Kings 15:38, etc., in Tiglath-pileser III’s Summary Inscription 7, reverse, line 11, refers to “Jehoahaz of Judah” in a list of kings who paid tribute (ITP, pp. 170–171 Raging Torrent, pp. 58–59). The Bible refers to him by the shortened form of his full name, Ahaz, rather than by the full form of his name, Jehoahaz, which the Assyrian inscription uses.

Cf. the unprovenanced seal of ’Ushna’, more commonly called ’Ashna’, the name Ahaz appears (IBP, pp. 163–169, with corrections from Kitchen’s review of IBP as noted in “Corrections,” p. 117 “Sixteen,” pp. 38–39 n. 11). Because this king already stands clearly documented in an Assyrian inscription, documentation in another inscription is not necessary to confirm the existence of the biblical Ahaz, king of Judah.

24. Hezekiah, king, r. 726–697/696, 2 Kings 16:20, etc., initially in the Rassam Cylinder of Sennacherib (in this inscription, Raging Torrent records frequent mention of Hezekiah in pp. 111–123 COS, pp. 302–303). It mentions “Hezekiah the Judahite” (col. 2 line 76 and col. 3 line 1 in Luckenbill, Annals of Sennacherib, pp. 31, 32) and “Jerusalem, his royal city” (ibid., col. 3 lines 28, 40 ibid., p. 33) Other, later copies of the annals of Sennacherib, such as the Oriental Institute prism and the Taylor prism, mostly repeat the content of the Rassam cylinder, duplicating its way of referring to Hezekiah and Jerusalem (ANET, pp. 287, 288). The Bull Inscription from the palace at Nineveh (ANET, p. 288 Raging Torrent, pp. 126–127) also mentions “Hezekiah the Judahite” (lines 23, 27 in Luckenbill, Annals of Sennacherib, pp. 69, 70) and “Jerusalem, his royal city” (line 29 ibid., p. 33).

During 2009, a royal bulla of Hezekiah, king of Judah, was discovered in the renewed Ophel excavations of Eilat Mazar. Imperfections along the left edge of the impression in the clay contributed to a delay in correct reading of the bulla until late in 2015. An English translation of the bulla is: “Belonging to Heze[k]iah, [son of] ’A[h]az, king of Jud[ah]” (letters within square brackets [ ] are supplied where missing or only partly legible). This is the first impression of a Hebrew king’s seal ever discovered in a scientific excavation.

See the online article by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, “Impression of King Hezekiah’s Royal Seal Discovered in Ophel Excavations South of Temple Mount in Jerusalem,” December 2, 2015 a video under copyright of Eilat Mazar and Herbert W. Armstrong College, 2015 Robin Ngo, “King Hezekiah in the Bible: Royal Seal of Hezekiah Comes to Light,” Bible History Daily (blog), originally published on December 3, 2015 Meir Lubetski, “King Hezekiah’s Seal Revisited,” BAR, July/August 2001. Apparently unavailable as of August 2017 (except for a rare library copy or two) is Eilat Mazar, ed., The Ophel Excavations to the South of the Temple Mount 2009-2013: Final Reports, vol. 1 (Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication, c2015).

25. Manasseh, king, r. 697/696–642/641, 2 Kings 20:21, etc., in the inscriptions of Assyrian kings Esarhaddon (Raging Torrent, pp. 131, 133, 136) and Ashurbanipal (ibid., p. 154). “Manasseh, king of Judah,” according to Esarhaddon (r. 680–669), was among those who paid tribute to him (Esarhaddon’s Prism B, column 5, line 55 R. Campbell Thompson, The Prisms of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal [London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1931], p. 25 ANET, p. 291). Also, Ashurbanipal (r. 668–627) records that “Manasseh, king of Judah” paid tribute to him (Ashurbanipal’s Cylinder C, col. 1, line 25 Maximilian Streck, Assurbanipal und die letzten assyrischen Könige bis zum Untergang Niniveh’s, [Vorderasiatische Bibliothek 7 Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs, 1916], vol. 2, pp. 138–139 ANET, p. 294.

26. Hilkiah, high priest during Josiah’s reign, within 640/639–609, 2 Kings 22:4, etc., in the City of David bulla of Azariah, son of Hilkiah (WSS, p. 224 no. 596 IBP, pp. 148–151 229 only in [50] City of David bulla “Sixteen,” p. 49).

The oldest part of Jerusalem, called the City of David, is the location where the Bible places all four men named in the bullae covered in the present endnotes 26 through 29.

Analysis of the clay of these bullae shows that they were produced in the locale of Jerusalem (Eran Arie, Yuval Goren, and Inbal Samet, “Indelible Impression: Petrographic Analysis of Judahite Bullae,” in The Fire Signals of Lachish: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Israel in the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period in Honor of David Ussishkin [ed. Israel Finkelstein and Nadav Na’aman Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2011], p. 10, quoted in “Sixteen,” pp. 48–49 n. 34).

27. Shaphan, scribe during Josiah’s reign, within 640/639–609, 2 Kings 22:3, etc., in the City of David bulla of Gemariah, son of Shaphan (WSS, p. 190 no. 470 IBP, pp. 139–146, 228). See endnote 26 above regarding “Sixteen,” pp. 48–49 n. 34.

28. Azariah, high priest during Josiah’s reign, within 640/639–609, 1 Chronicles 5:39, etc., in the City of David bulla of Azariah, son of Hilkiah (WSS, p. 224 no. 596 IBP, pp. 151–152 229). See endnote 26 above regarding “Sixteen,” pp. 48–49 n. 34.

29. Gemariah, official during Jehoiakim’s reign, within 609–598, Jeremiah 36:10, etc., in the City of David bulla of Gemariah, son of Shaphan (WSS, p. 190 no. 470 IBP, pp. 147, 232). See endnote 26 above regarding “Sixteen,” pp. 48–49 n. 34.

30. Jehoiachin (= Jeconiah = Coniah), king, r. 598–597, 2 Kings 24:5, etc., in four Babylonian administrative tablets regarding oil rations or deliveries, during his exile in Babylonia (Raging Torrent, p. 209 ANEHST, pp. 386–387). Discovered at Babylon, they are dated from the tenth to the thirty-fifth year of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of Babylonia and conqueror of Jerusalem. One tablet calls Jehoiachin “king” (Text Babylon 28122, obverse, line 29 ANET, p. 308). A second, fragmentary text mentions him as king in an immediate context that refers to “[. . . so]ns of the king of Judah” and “Judahites” (Text Babylon 28178, obverse, col. 2, lines 38–40 ANET, p. 308). The third tablet calls him “the son of the king of Judah” and refers to “the five sons of the king of Judah” (Text Babylon 28186, reverse, col. 2, lines 17–18 ANET, p. 308). The fourth text, the most fragmentary of all, confirms “Judah” and part of Jehoiachin’s name, but contributes no data that is not found in the other texts.

31. Shelemiah, father of Jehucal the official, late 7th century, Jeremiah 37:3 38:1 and 32. Jehucal (= Jucal), official during Zedekiah’s reign, fl. within 597–586, Jeremiah 37:3 38:1 only, both referred to in a bulla discovered in the City of David in 2005 (Eilat Mazar, “Did I Find King David’s Palace?” BAR 32, no. 1 [January/February 2006], pp. 16–27, 70 idem, Preliminary Report on the City of David Excavations 2005 at the Visitors Center Area [Jerusalem and New York: Shalem, 2007], pp. 67–69 idem, “The Wall that Nehemiah Built,” BAR 35, no. 2 [March/April 2009], pp. 24–33,66 idem, The Palace of King David: Excavations at the Summit of the City of David: Preliminary Report of Seasons 2005-2007 [Jerusalem/New York: Shoham AcademicResearch and Publication, 2009], pp. 66–71). Only the possibility of firm identifications is left open in “Corrections,” pp. 85–92 “Sixteen,” pp. 50–51 this article is my first affirmation of four identifications, both here in notes 31 and 32 and below in notes 33 and 34.

After cautiously observing publications and withholding judgment for several years, I am now affirming the four identifications in notes 31 through 34, because I am now convinced that this bulla is a remnant from an administrative center in the City of David, a possibility suggested in “Corrections,” p. 100 second-to-last paragraph, and “Sixteen,” p. 51. For me, the tipping point came by comparing the description and pictures of the nearby and immediate archaeological context in Eilat Mazar, “Palace of King David,” pp. 66–70, with the administrative contexts described in Eran Arie, Yuval Goren, and Inbal Samet, “Indelible Impression: Petrographic Analysis of Judahite Bullae,” in Israel Finkelstein and Nadav Na’aman, eds., The Fire Signals of Lachish: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Israel in the Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Persian Period in Honor of David Ussishkin (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2011), pp. 12–13 (the section titled “The Database: Judahite Bullae from Controlled Excavations”) and pp. 23–24. See also Nadav Na’aman, “The Interchange between Bible and Archaeology: The Case of David’s Palace and the Millo,” BAR 40, no. 1 (January/February 2014), pp. 57–61, 68–69, which is drawn from idem, “Biblical and Historical Jerusalem in the Tenth and Fifth-Fourth Centuries B.C.E.,” Biblica 93 (2012): pp. 21–42. See also idem, “Five Notes on Jerusalem in the First and Second Temple Periods,” Tel Aviv 39 (2012): p. 93.

33. Pashhur, father of Gedaliah the official, late 7th century, Jeremiah 38:1 and 34. Gedaliah, official during Zedekiah’s reign, fl. within 597–586, Jeremiah 38:1 only, both referred to in a bulla discovered in the City of David in 2008. See “Corrections,” pp. 92–96 “Sixteen,” pp. 50–51 and the preceding endnote 31 and 32 for bibliographic details on E. Mazar, “Wall,” pp. 24–33, 66 idem, Palace of King David, pp. 68–71) and for the comments in the paragraph that begins, “After cautiously … ”

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35. Tiglath-pileser III (= Pul), king, r. 744–727, 2 Kings 15:19, etc., in his many inscriptions. See Raging Torrent, pp. 46–79 COS, vol. 2, pp. 284–292 ITP Mikko Lukko, The Correspondence of Tiglath-pileser III and Sargon II from Calah/Nimrud (State Archives of Assyria, no. 19 Assyrian Text Corpus Project Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2013) ABC, pp. 248–249. On Pul as referring to Tiglath-pileser III, which is implicit in ABC, p. 333 under “Pulu,” see ITP, p. 280 n. 5 for discussion and bibliography.

On the identification of Tiglath-pileser III in the Aramaic monumental inscription honoring Panamu II, in Aramaic monumental inscriptions 1 and 8 of Bar-Rekub (now in Istanbul and Berlin, respectively), and in the Ashur Ostracon, see IBP, p. 240 COS, pp. 158–161.

36. Shalmaneser V (= Ululaya), king, r. 726–722, 2 Kings 17:2, etc., in chronicles, in king-lists, and in rare remaining inscriptions of his own (ABC, p. 242 COS, vol. 2, p. 325). Most notable is the Neo-Babylonian Chronicle series, Chronicle 1, i, lines 24–32. In those lines, year 2 of the Chronicle mentions his plundering the city of Samaria (Raging Torrent, pp. 178, 182 ANEHST, p. 408). (“Shalman” in Hosea 10:14 is likely a historical allusion, but modern lack of information makes it difficult to assign it to a particular historical situation or ruler, Assyrian or otherwise. See below for the endnotes to the box at the top of p. 50.)

37. Sargon II, king, r. 721–705, Isaiah 20:1, in many inscriptions, including his own. See Raging Torrent, pp. 80–109, 176–179, 182 COS, vol. 2, pp. 293–300 Mikko Lukko, The Correspondence of Tiglath-pileser III and Sargon II from Calah/Nimrud (State Archives of Assyria, no. 19 Assyrian Text Corpus Project Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2013) ABC, pp. 236–238 IBP, pp. 240–241 no. (74).

38. Sennacherib, king, r. 704–681, 2 Kings 18:13, etc., in many inscriptions, including his own. See Raging Torrent, pp. 110–129 COS, vol. 2, pp. 300–305 ABC, pp. 238–240 ANEHST, pp. 407–411, esp. 410 IBP, pp. 241–242.

39. Adrammelech (= Ardamullissu = Arad-mullissu), son and assassin of Sennacherib, fl. early 7th century, 2 Kings 19:37, etc., in a letter sent to Esarhaddon, who succeeded Sennacherib on the throne of Assyria. See Raging Torrent, pp. 111, 184, and COS, vol. 3, p. 244, both of which describe and cite with approval Simo Parpola, “The Murderer of Sennacherib,” in Death in Mesopotamia: Papers Read at the XXVie Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale, ed. Bendt Alster (Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1980), pp. 171–182. See also ABC, p. 240.

An upcoming scholarly challenge is the identification of Sennacherib’s successor, Esarhaddon, as a more likely assassin in Andrew Knapp’s paper, “The Murderer of Sennacherib, Yet Again,” to be read in a February 2014 Midwest regional conference in Bourbonnais, Ill. (SBL/AOS/ASOR).

On various renderings of the neo-Assyrian name of the assassin, see RlA s.v. “Ninlil,” vol. 9, pp. 452–453 (in German). On the mode of execution of those thought to have been conspirators in the assassination, see the selection from Ashurbanipal’s Rassam cylinder in ANET, p. 288.

40. Esarhaddon, king, r. 680–669, 2 Kings 19:37, etc., in his many inscriptions. See Raging Torrent, pp. 130–147 COS, vol. 2, p. 306 ABC, pp. 217–219. Esarhaddon’s name appears in many cuneiform inscriptions (ANET, pp. 272–274, 288–290, 292–294, 296, 297, 301–303, 426–428, 449, 450, 531, 533–541, 605, 606), including his Succession Treaty (ANEHST, p. 355).

41. Merodach-baladan II (=Marduk-apla-idinna II), king, r. 721–710 and 703, 2 Kings 20:12, etc., in the inscriptions of Sennacherib and the Neo-Babylonian Chronicles (Raging Torrent, pp. 111, 174, 178–179, 182–183. For Sennacherib’s account of his first campaign, which was against Merodach-baladan II, see COS, vol. 2, pp. 300-302. For the Neo-Babylonian Chronicle series, Chronicle 1, i, 33–42, see ANEHST, pp. 408–409. This king is also included in the Babylonian King List A (ANET, p. 271), and the latter part of his name remains in the reference to him in the Synchronistic King List (ANET, pp. 271–272), on which see ABC, pp. 226, 237.

42. Nebuchadnezzar II, king, r. 604–562, 2 Kings 24:1, etc., in many cuneiform tablets, including his own inscriptions. See Raging Torrent, pp. 220–223 COS, vol. 2, pp. 308–310 ANET, pp. 221, 307–311 ABC, p. 232. The Neo-Babylonian Chronicle series refers to him in Chronicles 4 and 5 (ANEHST, pp. 415, 416–417, respectively). Chronicle 5, reverse, lines 11–13, briefly refers to his conquest of Jerusalem (“the city of Judah”) in 597 by defeating “its king” (Jehoiachin), as well as his appointment of “a king of his own choosing” (Zedekiah) as king of Judah.

43. Nebo-sarsekim, chief official of Nebuchadnezzar II, fl. early 6th century, Jeremiah 39:3, in a cuneiform inscription on Babylonian clay tablet BM 114789 (1920-12-13, 81), dated to 595 B.C.E. The time reference in Jeremiah 39:3 is very close, to the year 586. Since it is extremely unlikely that two individuals having precisely the same personal name would have been, in turn, the sole holders of precisely this unique position within a decade of each other, it is safe to assume that the inscription and the book of Jeremiah refer to the same person in different years of his time in office. In July 2007 in the British Museum, Austrian researcher Michael Jursa discovered this Babylonian reference to the biblical “Nebo-sarsekim, the Rab-saris” (rab ša-rēši, meaning “chief official”) of Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 604–562). Jursa identified this official in his article, “Nabu-šarrūssu-ukīn, rab ša-rēši, und ‘Nebusarsekim’ (Jer. 39:3),” Nouvelles Assyriologiques Breves et Utilitaires2008/1 (March): pp. 9–10 (in German). See also Bob Becking, “Identity of Nabusharrussu-ukin, the Chamberlain: An Epigraphic Note on Jeremiah 39,3. With an Appendix on the Nebu(!)sarsekim Tablet by Henry Stadhouders,” Biblische Notizen NF 140 (2009): pp. 35–46 “Corrections,” pp. 121–124 “Sixteen,” p. 47 n. 31. On the correct translation of ráb ša-rēši (and three older, published instances of it having been incorrect translated as rab šaqê), see ITP, p. 171 n. 16.

44. Nergal-sharezer (= Nergal-sharuṣur the Sin-magir = Nergal-šarru-uṣur the simmagir), officer of Nebuchadnezzar II, early sixth century, Jeremiah 39:3, in a Babylonian cuneiform inscription known as Nebuchadnezzar II’s Prism (column 3 of prism EŞ 7834, in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum). See ANET, pp. 307‒308 Rocio Da Riva, “Nebuchadnezzar II’s Prism (EŞ 7834): A New Edition,” Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, vol. 103, no. 2 (2013): 204, Group 3.

45. Nebuzaradan (= Nabuzeriddinam = Nabû-zēr-iddin), a chief officer of Nebuchadnezzar II, early sixth century, 2 Kings 25:8, etc. & Jeremiah 39:9, etc., in a Babylonian cuneiform inscription known as Nebuchadnezzar II’s Prism (column 3, line 36 of prism EŞ 7834, in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum). See ANET, p. 307 Rocio Da Riva, “Nebuchadnezzar II’s Prism (EŞ 7834): A New Edition,” Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie, vol. 103, no. 2 (2013): 202, Group 1.

46. Evil-merodach (= Awel Marduk, = Amel Marduk), king, r. 561–560, 2 Kings 25:27, etc., in various inscriptions (ANET, p. 309 OROT, pp. 15, 504 n. 23). See especially Ronald H. Sack, Amel-Marduk: 562-560 B.C. A Study Based on Cuneiform, Old Testament, Greek, Latin and Rabbinical Sources (Alter Orient und Altes Testament, no. 4 Kevelaer, Butzon & Bercker, and Neukirchen-Vluyn, Neukirchener, 1972).

47. Belshazzar, son and co-regent of Nabonidus, fl. ca. 543?–540, Daniel 5:1, etc., in Babylonian administrative documents and the “Verse Account” (Muhammed A. Dandamayev, “Nabonid, A,” RlA, vol. 9, p. 10 Raging Torrent, pp. 215–216 OROT, pp. 73–74). A neo-Babylonian text refers to him as “Belshazzar the crown prince” (ANET, pp. 309–310 n. 5).

48. Cyrus II (=Cyrus the great), king, r. 559–530, 2 Chronicles 36:22, etc., in various inscriptions (including his own), for which and on which see ANEHST, pp. 418–426, ABC, p. 214. For Cyrus’ cylinder inscription, see Raging Torrent, pp. 224–230 ANET, pp. 315–316 COS, vol. 2, pp. 314–316 ANEHST, pp. 426–430 P&B, pp. 87–92. For larger context and implications in the biblical text, see OROT, pp. 70-76.

49. Darius I (=Darius the Great), king, r. 520–486, Ezra 4:5, etc., in various inscriptions, including his own trilingual cliff inscription at Behistun, on which see P&B, pp. 131–134. See also COS, vol. 2, p. 407, vol. 3, p. 130 ANET, pp. 221, 316, 492 ABC, p. 214 ANEHST, pp. 407, 411. On the setting, see OROT, pp. 70–75.

50. Tattenai (=Tatnai), provincial governor of Trans-Euphrates, late sixth to early fifth century, Ezra 5:3, etc., in a tablet of Darius I the Great, king of Persia, which can be dated to exactly June 5, 502 B.C.E. See David E. Suiter, “Tattenai,” in David Noel Freedman, ed., Anchor Bible Dictionary (New York: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 6, p. 336 A. T. Olmstead, “Tattenai, Governor of ‘Beyond the River,’” Journal of Near Eastern Studies 3 (1944): p. 46. A drawing of the cuneiform text appears in Arthur Ungnad, Vorderasiatische Schriftdenkmäler Der Königlichen Museen Zu Berlin (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1907), vol. IV, p. 48, no. 152 (VAT 43560). VAT is the abbreviation for the series Vorderasiatische Abteilung Tontafel, published by the Berlin Museum. The author of the BAR article wishes to acknowledge the query regarding Tattenai from Mr. Nathan Yadon of Houston, Texas, private correspondence, 8 September 2015.

51. Xerxes I (=Ahasuerus), king, r. 486–465, Esther 1:1, etc., in various inscriptions, including his own (P&B, p. 301 ANET, pp. 316–317), and in the dates of documents from the time of his reign (COS, vol. 2, p. 188, vol. 3, pp. 142, 145. On the setting, see OROT, pp. 70–75.

52. Artaxerxes I Longimanus, king, r. 465-425/424, Ezra 4:6, 7, etc., in various inscriptions, including his own (P&B, pp. 242–243), and in the dates of documents from the time of his reign (COS, vol. 2, p. 163, vol. 3, p. 145 ANET, p. 548).

53. Darius II Nothus, king, r. 425/424-405/404, Nehemiah 12:22, in various inscriptions, including his own (for example, P&B, pp. 158–159) and in the dates of documents from the time of his reign (ANET, p. 548 COS, vol. 3, pp. 116–117).

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“Almost Real” People: Reasonable but Uncertain

In general, the persons listed in the box at the top of p. 50 of the March/April 2014 issue of BAR exclude persons in two categories. The first category includes those about whom we know so little that we cannot even approach a firm identification with anyone named in an inscription. One example is “Shalman” in Hosea 10:14. This name almost certainly refers to a historical person, but variations of this name were common in the ancient Near East, and modern lack of information on the biblical Shalman makes it difficult to assign it to a particular historical situation or ruler, Assyrian or otherwise. See Francis I. Andersen and David Noel Freedman, Hosea (The Anchor Bible, vol. 24 Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980), pp. 570–571. A second example is “Osnappar” (=Asnapper) in Ezra 4:10, who is not called a king, and for whom the traditional identification has no basis for singling out any particular ruler. See Jacob M. Myers, Ezra-Nehemiah (The Anchor Bible. vol. 14 Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1981), p. 333.

The second category of excluded identifications comes from the distinction between inscriptions that are dug up after many centuries and texts that have been copied and recopied through the course of many centuries. The latter include the books of the Bible itself, as well as other writings, notably those of Flavius Josephus in the first century C.E. His reference to Ethbaal (=’Ittoba’al =’Ithoba’al), the father of Jezebel (1 Kings 16:31). is not included in this article, because Josephus’ writings do not come to us from archaeology. See IBP, p. 238 n. 90 cf. Raging Torrent, pp. 30, 115–116 (p. 133 refers to an Ethbaal appointed king of Sidon by Sennacherib, therefore he must have lived a century later than Jezebel’s father).

Balaam son of Beor, fl. late 13th century (some scholars prefer late 15th century), Numbers 22:5, etc., in a wall inscription on plaster dated to 700 B.C.E. (COS, vol. 2, pp. 140–145). It was discovered at Tell Deir ʿAllā, in the same Transjordanian geographical area in which the Bible places Balaam’s activity. Many scholars assume or conclude that the Balaam and Beor of the inscription are the same as the biblical pair and belong to the same folk tradition, which is not necessarily historical. See P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., “The Balaam Texts from Deir ‘Allā: The First Combination,” BASOR 239 (1980): pp. 49–60 Jo Ann Hackett, The Balaam Text from Deir ʿAllā (Chico, Calif.: Scholars Press, 1984), pp. 27, 33–34 idem, “Some Observations on the Balaam Tradition at Deir ʿAllā,” Biblical Archaeologist 49 (1986), p. 216. Mykytiuk at first listed these two identifications under a strong classification in IBP, p. 236, but because the inscription does not reveal a time period for Balaam and Beor, he later corrected that to a “not-quite-firmly identified” classification in “Corrections,” pp. 111–113, no. 29 and 30, and in “Sixteen,” p. 53.

Although it contains three identifying marks (traits) of both father and son, this inscription is dated to ca. 700 B.C.E., several centuries after the period in which the Bible places Balaam. Speaking with no particular reference to this inscription, some scholars, such as Frendo and Kofoed, argue that lengthy gaps between a particular writing and the things to which it refers are not automatically to be considered refutations of historical claims (Anthony J. Frendo, Pre-Exilic Israel, the Hebrew Bible, and Archaeology: Integrating Text and Artefact [New York: T&T Clark, 2011], p. 98 Jens B. Kofoed, Text and History: Historiography and the Study of the Biblical Text [Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2005], pp. 83–104, esp. p, 42). There might easily have been intervening sources which transmitted the information from generation to generation but as centuries passed, were lost.

Baalis, king of the Ammonites, r. early 6th century, Jeremiah 40:14, in an Ammonite seal impression on the larger, fairly flat end of a ceramic cone (perhaps a bottle-stopper?) from Tell el-Umeiri, in what was the land of the ancient Ammonites. The seal impression reveals only two marks (traits) of an individual, so it is not quite firm. See Larry G. Herr, “The Servant of Baalis,” Biblical Archaeologist 48 (1985): pp. 169–172 WSS, p. 322 no. 860 COS, p. 201 IBP, p. 242 no. (77) “Sixteen Strong,” p. 52. The differences between the king’s name in this seal impression and the biblical version can be understood as slightly different renderings of the same name in different dialects see bibliography in Michael O’Connor, “The Ammonite Onomasticon: Semantic Problems,” Andrews University Seminary Studies 25 (1987): p. 62 paragraph (3), supplemented by Lawrence T. Geraty, “Back to Egypt: An Illustration of How an Archaeological Find May Illumine a Biblical Passage,” Reformed Review 47 (1994): p. 222 Emile Puech, “L’inscription de la statue d’Amman et la paleographie ammonite,” Revue biblique 92 (1985): pp. 5–24.

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NORTHERN ARABIA

Geshem (= Gashmu) the Arabian, r. mid-5th century, Nehemiah 2:10, etc., in an Aramaic inscription on a silver bowl discovered at Tell el-Maskhuta, Egypt, in the eastern delta of the Nile, that mentions “Qainu, son of Geshem [or Gashmu], king of Qedar,” an ancient kingdom in northwest Arabia. This bowl is now in the Brooklyn Museum. See Isaac Rabinowitz, “Aramaic Inscriptions of the Fifth Century B.C.E. from a North-Arab Shrine in Egypt,” Journal of the Near Eastern Studies 15 (1956): pp. 1–9, Pl. 6–7 William J. Dumbrell, “The Tell el-Maskhuta Bowls and the ‘Kingdom’ of Qedar in the Persian Period,” BASOR 203 (October 1971): pp. 35–44 OROT, pp. 74–75, 518 n. 26 Raging Torrent, p. 55.

Despite thorough analyses of the Qainu bowl and its correspondences pointing to the biblical Geshem, there is at least one other viable candidate for identification with the biblical Geshem: Gashm or Jasm, son of Shahr, of Dedan. On him, see Frederick V. Winnett and William L. Reed, Ancient Records from North Arabia (University of Toronto Press, 1970), pp. 115–117 OROT, pp. 75. 518 n. 26. Thus the existence of two viable candidates would seem to render the case for each not quite firm (COS, vol. 2, p. 176).

SOUTHERN KINGDOM OF JUDAH

Hezir (=Ḥezîr), founding father of a priestly division in the First Temple in Jerusalem, early tenth century, 1 Chronicles 24:15, in an epitaph over a large tomb complex on the western slope of the Mount of Olives, facing the site of the Temple in Jerusalem. First the epitaph names some of Ḥezîr’s prominent descendants, and then it presents Ḥezîr by name in the final phrase, which refers to his descendants, who are named before that, as “priests, of (min, literally “from”) the sons of Ḥezîr.” This particular way of saying it recognizes him as the head of that priestly family. See CIIP, vol. 1: Jerusalem, Part 1, pp. 178‒181, no. 137.

Also, among the burial places inside that same tomb complex, lying broken into fragments was an inscribed, square stone plate that had been used to seal a burial. This plate originally told whose bones they were and the name of that person’s father: “‘Ovadiyah, the son of G . . . ,” but a break prevents us from knowing the rest of the father’s name and what might have been written after that. Immediately after the break, the inscription ends with the name “Ḥezîr.” Placement at the end, as in the epitaph over the entire tomb complex, is consistent with proper location of the name of the founding ancestor of the family. See CIIP, vol. 1, Part 1, p. 182, no. 138.

As for the date of Ḥezîr in the inscriptions, to be sure, Ḥezîr lived at least four generations earlier than the inscribing of the epitaph over the complex, and possibly many more generations (CIIP, vol. 1, Part 1:179–180, no. 137). Still, it is not possible to assign any date (or even a century) to the Ḥezîr named in the epitaph above the tomb complex, nor to the Ḥezîr named on the square stone plate, therefore this identification has no “airtight” proof or strong case. The date of the engraving itself does not help answer the question of this identification, because the stone was quarried no earlier than the second century B.C.E. (CIIP, Part 1, p.179, no. 137–138). Nevertheless, it is still a reasonable identification, as supported by the following facts:

1) Clearly in the epitaph over the tomb complex, and possibly in the square stone plate inscription, the Ḥezîr named in the epitaph is placed last in recognition of his being the head, that is, the progenitor or “founding father” of the priestly family whose members are buried there.

2) This manner of presenting Ḥezîr in the epitaph suggests that he dates back to the founding of this branch of the priestly family. (This suggestion may be pursued independently of whether the family was founded in Davidic times as 1 Chronicles 24 states.)

3) Because there is no mention of earlier ancestors, one may observe that the author(s) of the inscriptions anchored these genealogies in the names of the progenitors. It seems that the authors fully expected that the names of the founders of these 24 priestly families would be recognized as such, presumably by Jewish readers. In at least some inscriptions of ancient Israel, it appears that patronymic phrases that use a preposition such as min, followed by the plural of the word son, as in the epitaph over the tomb complex, “from the sons of Ḥezîr,” functioned in much the same way as virtual surnames. The assumption would have been that they were common knowledge. If one accepts that Israel relied on these particular priestly families to perform priestly duties for centuries, then such an expectation makes sense. To accept the reasonableness of this identification is a way of acknowledging the continuity of Hebrew tradition, which certainly seems unquenchable.

See the published dissertation, L. J. Mykytiuk, Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E. (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004), p. 214, note 2, for 19th- and 20th-century bibliography on the Ḥezîr family epitaph.

Jakim (=Yakîm), founding father of a priestly division in the First Temple in Jerusalem, early tenth century, 1 Chronicles 24:12, on an inscribed ossuary (“bone box”) of the first or second century C.E. discovered in a burial chamber just outside Jerusalem on the western slope of the Mount of Olives, facing the site of the Temple. The three-line inscription reads: “Menahem, from (min) the sons of Yakîm, (a) priest.” See CIIP, vol. 1, Part 1, pp. 217–218, no. 183, burial chamber 299, ossuary 83.

As with the epitaph over the tomb complex of Ḥezîr, this inscription presents Yakîm as the founder of this priestly family. And as with Ḥezîr in the preceding case, no strong case can be made for this identification, because the inscriptional Yakîm lacks a clear date (and indeed, has no clear century). Nevertheless, it is reasonable to identify Yakîm with the Jakim in 1 Chronicles 24 for essentially the same three reasons as Ḥezîr immediately above.

Maaziah (= Ma‘aziah = Maazyahu = Ma‘azyahu), founding father of a priestly division in the First Temple in Jerusalem, early 10th century, 1 Chronicles 24:18, on an inscribed ossuary (“bone box”) of the late first century B.C.E. or the first century C.E. Its one-line inscription reads, “Miriam daughter of Yeshua‘ son of Caiaphas, priest from Ma‘aziah, from Beth ‘Imri.”

The inscription is in Aramaic, which was the language spoken by Jews in first-century Palestine for day-to-day living. The Hebrew personal name Miriam and the Yahwistic ending –iah on Ma‘aziah, which refers to the name of Israel’s God, also attest to a Jewish context.

This inscription’s most significant difficulty is that its origin is unknown (it is unprovenanced). Therefore, the Israel Antiquities Authority at first considered it a potential forgery. Zissu and Goren’s subsequent scientific examination, particularly of the patina (a coating left by age), however, has upheld its authenticity. Thus the inscribed ossuary is demonstrably authentic, and it suits the Jewish setting of the priestly descendants of Ma‘aziah in the Second Temple period.

Now that we have the authenticity and the Jewish setting of the inscription, we can count the identifying marks of an individual to see how strong a case there is for the Ma‘azyahu of the Bible and the Ma‘aziah being the same person: 1) Ma‘azyahu and Ma‘aziah are simply spelling variants of the very same name. 2) Ma‘aziah’s occupation was priest, because he was the ancestor of a priest. 3) Ma‘aziah’s place in the family is mentioned in a way that anchors the genealogy in him as the founder of the family. (The inscription adds mention of ‘Imri as the father of a subset, a “father’s house” within Ma‘aziah’s larger family.)

Normally, if the person in the Bible and the person in the inscription have the same three identifying marks of an individual, and if all other factors are right, one can say the identification (confirmation) of the Biblical person in the inscription is virtually certain.

But not all other factors are right. A setting (even in literature) consists of time and place. To be sure, the social “place” is a Jewish family of priests, both for the Biblical Ma‘azyahu and for the inscriptional Ma‘aziah. But the time setting of the Biblical Ma‘azyahu during the reign of David is not matched by any time setting at all for the inscriptional Ma‘aziah. We do not even know which century the inscriptional Ma‘aziah lived in. He could have been a later descendant of the Biblical Ma‘azyahu.

Therefore, as with Ḥezîr and as with Yakîm above, we cannot claim a clear, strong identification that would be an archaeological confirmation of the biblical Ma‘azyahu. We only have a reasonable hypothesis, a tentative identification that is certainly not proven, but reasonable—for essentially the same three reasons as with Ḥezîr above.

See Boaz Zissu and Yuval Goren, “The Ossuary of ‘Miriam Daughter of Yeshua Son of Caiaphas, Priests [of] Ma‘aziah from Beth ‘Imri’,” Israel Exploration Journal 61 (2011), pp. 74–95 Christopher A. Rollston, “‘Priests’ or ‘Priest’ in the Mariam (Miriam) Ossuary, and the Language of the Inscription,” Rollston Epigraphy (blog), July 14, 2011, www.rollstonepigraphy.com/?p=275, accessed October 10, 2016 Richard Bauckham, “The Caiaphas Family,” Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus 10 (2012), pp. 3–31.

Isaiah the prophet, fl. ca. 740–680, 2 Kings 19:2 Isaiah 1:1, etc., in a bulla (lump of clay impressed with an image and/or inscription and used as a seal) unearthed by Eilat Mazar’s Ophel Excavation in Jerusalem. It was discovered in a narrow patch of land between the south side of the Temple mount and the north end of the City of David. The bulla, whose upper left portion is broken off, reveals only two marks (traits) of an individual in the Bible, not three, which would have made a virtually certain identification of a Biblical person. The first mark is Isaiah’s name in Hebrew, Y’sha‘yahu, except for the last vowel, -u, which was broken off. No other letter makes any sense in that spot. This name and other forms of the same name were common in ancient Israel during the prophet Isaiah’s lifetime. The second mark of an individual is where he worked, as indicated by the place where the bulla was discovered. In this case, that seems to have been in or near Hezekiah’s palace, which, given the location of the royal precinct in the Jerusalem of Hezekiah’s day, was likely not far from where the bulla was discovered. Less than ten feet away from where this bulla was discovered, at the exact same level, the Ophel Excavation also discovered the royal bulla inscribed, “belonging Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, king of Judah.”

Although these facts may seem enough to make an identification of the prophet Isaiah, the case is not settled. On the last line of the bulla are the letters nby. These are the first three letters of the Hebrew word that means prophet, but they lack the final letter aleph to form that word. It was either originally present but broke off, or else it was never present. These same three letters, nby, are also a complete Hebrew personal name. We know that, because this name was found on two authentic bullae made by one stone seal and discovered in a juglet at the city of Lachish. Back to the bulla found by the Ophel Excavation: these three letters, nby, follow the name Y’sha‘yahu, exactly where most Hebrew bullae would have the name of the person’s father. As a result, to identify Isaiah the son of nby, (perhaps pronounced Novi), who apparently worked as an official in the palace, or possibly the Temple, is a perfectly good alternative to identifying Isaiah the prophet, son of Amoz. Therefore, a firm identification of Isaiah the prophet is not possible. He remains a candidate. See Eilat Mazar, “Is This the Prophet Isaiah’s Signature?” Biblical Archaeology Review, 44, no. 2 (March/April/May/June 2018), pp. 64–73, 92 Christopher A. Rollston, “The Putative Bulla of Isaiah the Prophet: Not so Fast,” Rollston Epigraphy, February 22, 2018 Megan Sauter, “Isaiah’s Signature Uncovered in Jerusalem: Evidence of the Prophet Isaiah?” Bible History Daily, February 22, 2018.

Shebna, the overseer of the palace, fl. ca. 726–697/696, Isaiah 22:15–19 (probably also the scribe of 2 Kings 18:18, etc., before being promoted to palace overseer), in an inscription at the entrance to a rock-cut tomb in Silwan, near Jerusalem. There are only two marks (traits) of an individual, and these do not include his complete name, so this identification, though tempting, is not quite firm. See Nahman Avigad, “Epitaph of a Royal Steward from Siloam Village,” IEJ 3 (1953): pp. 137–152 David Ussishkin, The Village of Silwan (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1993), pp. 247–250 IBP, pp. 223, 225 “Sixteen Strong,” pp. 51–52.

Hananiah and his father, Azzur, from Gibeon, fl. early 6th and late 7th centuries, respectively, Jeremiah 28:1, etc., in a personal seal carved from blue stone, 20 mm. long and 17 mm. wide, inscribed “belonging to Hananyahu, son of ‘Azaryahu” and surrounded by a pomegranate-garland border, and (WSS, p. 100, no. 165). This seal reveals only two marks (traits) of an individual, the names of father and son, therefore the identification it provides can be no more than a reasonable hypothesis (IBP, pp. 73–77, as amended by “Corrections,” pp. 56‒57). One must keep in mind that there were probably many people in Judah during that time named Hananiah/Hananyahu, and quite a few of them could have had a father named ‘Azariah/‘Azaryahu, or ‘Azzur for short. (Therefore, it would take a third identifying mark of an individual to establish a strong, virtually certain identification of the Biblical father and/or son, such as mention of the town of Gibeon or Hananyahu being a prophet.)

Because the shapes of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet gradually changed over the centuries, using examples discovered at different stratigraphic levels of earth, we can now date ancient Hebrew inscriptions on the basis of paleography (letter shapes and the direction and order of the strokes). This seal was published during the 19th century (in 1883 by Charles Clermont-Ganneau), when no one, neither scholars nor forgers, knew the correct shapes of Hebrew letters for the late seventh to early sixth centuries (the time of Jeremiah). We now know that all the letter shapes in this seal are chronologically consistent with each other and are the appropriate letter shapes for late seventh–century to early sixth–century Hebrew script—the time of Jeremiah. This date is indicated especially by the Hebrew letter nun (n) and—though the photographs are not completely clear, possibly by the Hebrew letter he’ (h), as well.

Because the letter shapes could not have been correctly forged, yet they turned out to be correct, it is safe to presume that this stone seal is genuine, even though its origin (provenance) is unknown. Normally, materials from the antiquities market are not to be trusted, because they have been bought, rather than excavated, and could be forged. But the exception is inscriptions purchased during the 19th century that turn out to have what we now know are the correct letter shapes, all of which appropriate for the same century or part of a century (IBP, p. 41, paragraph 2) up to the word “Also,” pp. 154 and 160 both under the subheading “Authenticity,” p. 219, notes 23 and 24).

Also, the letters are written in Hebrew script, which is discernibly different from the scripts of neighboring kingdoms. The only Hebrew kingdom still standing when this inscription was written was Judah. Because this seal is authentic and is from the kingdom of Judah during the time of Jeremiah, it matches the setting of the Hananiah, the son of Azzur in Jeremiah 28.

Comparing the identifying marks of individuals in the inscription and in the Bible, the seal owner’s name and his father’s name inscribed in the seal match the name of the false prophet and his father in Jeremiah 28, giving us two matching marks of an individual. That is not enough for a firm identification, but it is enough for a reasonable hypothesis.

Gedaliah the governor, son of Ahikam, fl. ca. 585, 2 Kings 25:22, etc., in the bulla from Tell ed-Duweir (ancient Lachish) that reads, “Belonging to Gedalyahu, the overseer of the palace.” The Babylonian practice was to appoint indigenous governors over conquered populations. It is safe to assume that as conquerors of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E., they would have chosen the highest-ranking Judahite perceived as “pro-Babylonian” to be their governor over Judah. The palace overseer had great authority and knowledge of the inner workings of government at the highest level, sometimes serving as vice-regent for the king see S. H. Hooke, “A Scarab and Sealing From Tell Duweir,” Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 67 (1935): pp. 195–197 J. L. Starkey, “Lachish as Illustrating Bible History,” Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 69 (1937): pp. 171–174 some publications listed in WSS, p. 172 no. 405. The palace overseer at the time of the Babylonian conquest, whose bulla we have, would be the most likely choice for governor, if they saw him as pro-Babylonian. Of the two prime candidates named Gedaliah (= Gedalyahu)—assuming both survived the conquest—Gedaliah the son of Pashhur clearly did not have the title “overseer of the palace” (Jeremiah 38:1), and he was clearly an enemy of the Babylonians (Jeremiah 38:4–6). But, though we lack irrefutable evidence, Gedaliah the son of Ahikam is quite likely to have been palace overseer. His prestigious family, the descendants of Shaphan, had been “key players” in crucial situations at the highest levels of the government of Judah for three generations. As for his being perceived as pro-Babylonian, his father Ahikam had protected the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 26:24 cf. 39:11–14), who urged surrender to the Babylonian army (Jeremiah 38:1–3).

The preceding argument is a strengthening step beyond “Corrections,” pp. 103–104, which upgrades the strength of the identification from its original level in IBP, p. 235, responding to the difficulty expressed in Oded Lipschits, The Fall and Rise of Jerusalem: Judah under Babylonian Rule (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2005), p. 86 n. 186.

Jaazaniah (= Jezaniah), fl. early 6th century, 2 Kings 25:23, etc., in the Tell en-Naṣbeh (ancient Mizpah) stone seal inscribed: “Belonging to Ya’azanyahu, the king’s minister.” It is unclear whether the title “king’s minister” in the seal might have some relationship with the biblical phrase “the officers (Hebrew: sarîm) of the troops,” which included the biblical Jaazaniah (2 Kings 25: 23). There are, then, only two identifying marks of an individual that clearly connect the seal’s Jaazaniah with the biblical one: the seal owner’s name and the fact that it was discovered at the city where the biblical “Jaazaniah, the son of the Maacathite,” died. See William F. Badè, “The Seal of Jaazaniah,” Zeitschrift für die alttestamentlishe Wissenschaft 51 (1933): pp. 150–156 WSS, p. 52 no. 8 IBP, p. 235 “Sixteen Strong,” p. 52.

BAS Library Members: Read Lawrence Mykytiuk’s Biblical Archaeology Review articles “Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible” in the March/April 2014 and “Archaeology Confirms 3 More Bible People” in the May/June 2017 issue.

Not a BAS Library member yet? Join the BAS Library today.

Symbols & Abbreviations

ANEHST Mark W. Chavalas, ed., The Ancient Near East: Historical Sources in Translation (Blackwell Sources in Ancient History Victoria, Australia: Blackwell, 2006).

ABC A. Kirk Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2000).

ANET James B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd ed. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969).

B.C.E. before the common era, used as an equivalent to B.C.

BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research

c. century (all are B.C.E.)

ca. circa, a Latin word meaning “around”

cf. compare

CAH John Boardman et al., eds., The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1970).

CIIP Hanna M. Cotton et al., eds., Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaeae/Palaestinae, vol. 1: Jerusalem, Part 1 (Berlin and Boston: De Gruyter, 2010). Vol. 1 consists of two separately bound Parts, each a physical “book.”

“Corrections” Lawrence J. Mykytiuk, “Corrections and Updates to ‘Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E.,” Maarav 16 (2009), pp. 49–132, free online at docs.lib.purdue.edu/lib_research/129/.

COS William W. Hallo and K. Lawson Younger, eds., The Context of Scripture, vol. 2: Archival Documents from the Biblical World (Boston: Brill, 2000).
Dearman, Studies J. Andrew Dearman, ed., Studies in the Mesha Inscription and Moab (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989).

esp. especially

fl. flourished

IBP Lawrence J. Mykytiuk, Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E. (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2004). This book is a revised Ph.D. dissertation in Hebrew and Semitic Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1998, which began with a 1992 graduate seminar paper. Most of IBP is available on the Google Books web site: www.google.com/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=mykytiuk+identifying&num=10

ibid. (Latin) “the same thing,” meaning the same publication as the one mentioned immediately before

idem (Latin) “the same one(s),” meaning “the same person or persons,” used for referring to the author(s) mentioned immediately before.

IEJ Israel Exploration Journal

ITP Hayim Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III, King of Assyria (Fontes ad Res Judaicas Spectantes Jerusalem: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 2nd 2007 printing with addenda et corrigenda, 1994).

n. note (a footnote or endnote)

no. number (of an item, usually on a page)

OROT Kenneth A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2003).

P&B Edwin M. Yamauchi, Persia and the Bible (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker, 1990).

Pl. plate(s) (a page of photos or drawings in a scholarly publication, normally unnumbered,)

Raging Torrent Mordechai Cogan, The Raging Torrent: Historical Inscriptions from Assyria and Babylonia Relating to Ancient Israel (A Carta Handbook Jerusalem: Carta, 2008).

RlA Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie (New York, Berlin: de Gruyter, ©1932, 1971).

RIMA a series of books: The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia: Assyrian Periods

RIMA 3 A. Kirk Grayson, Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC, II (858–745 BC) (RIMA, no. 3 Buffalo, N.Y.: University of Toronto Press, 1996).

“Sixteen” Lawrence J. Mykytiuk, “Sixteen Strong Identifications of Biblical Persons (Plus Nine Other Identifications) in Authentic Northwest Semitic Inscriptions from before 539 B.C.E.,” pp. 35–58 in Meir Lubetski and Edith Lubetski, eds., New Inscriptions and Seals Relating to the Biblical World (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2012), free online at docs.lib.purdue.edu/lib_research/150/.

Third Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 B.C.) (2nd rev. ed. with supplement Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips, 1986).

WSS Nahman Avigad and Benjamin Sass, Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals (Jerusalem: The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Israel Exploration Society, and The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, The Institute of Archaeology, 1997).

Date Sources

This table uses Kitchen’s dates for rulers of Egypt, Pitard’s for kings of Damascus (with some differences), Galil’s for monarchs of Judah and for those of the northern kingdom of Israel, Grayson’s for Neo-Assyrian kings, Wiseman’s for Neo-Babylonian kings and Briant’s, if given, for Persian kings and for the Persian province of Yehud. Other dates follow traditional high biblical chronology, rather than the low chronology proposed by Israel Finkelstein.

References
Kenneth A. Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650 B.C.) (2nd rev. ed. with supplement Warminster, England: Aris & Phillips, 1986), pp. 466–468.

Wayne T. Pitard, Ancient Damascus: A Historical Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times until its Fall to the Assyrians in 732 B.C.E. (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1987), pp. 138–144, 189.

Gershon Galil, The Chronology of the Kings of Israel and Judah (SHCANE 9 New York: Brill, 1996), p. 147.

A. Kirk Grayson, Assyrian Rulers of the Early First Millennium BC, II (858–745 BC) (RIMA 3 Buffalo, N.Y.: University of Toronto Press, 1996), p. vii idem, “Assyria: Ashur-dan II to Ashur-nirari V (934–745 B.C.),” in CAH, vol. III, part I, pp. 238–281 idem, “Assyria: Tiglath-pileser III to Sargon II (744–705 B.C.),” in CAH, vol. III, part II, pp. 71–102 idem, “Assyria: Sennacherib and Esarhaddon (704–669 B.C.),” in CAH, vol. III, part II, pp. 103–141 idem, “Assyria 668–635 B.C.: The Reign of Ashurbanipal,” in CAH, vol. III, part II, pp. 142–161.

Donald J. Wiseman, “Babylonia 605–539 B.C.” in CAH, vol. III, part II, pp. 229–251.

Pierre Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander : A History of the Persian Empire (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2002), “Index of Personal Names,” pp. 1149–1160.

This Bible History Daily feature was originally published on March 3, 2014. It has been updated.


Early government

The two consuls (who had come to replace the king) were primarily generals whose task it was to lead Rome’s armies in war. In times of military emergency, when unity of command was sometimes necessary, Rome appointed a dictator in place of the consuls, who, however, could not hold supreme military command for longer than six months.

The Senate, which may have existed under the monarchy and served as an advisory council for the king, now advised both magistrates and the Roman people. Although in theory the people were sovereign and the Senate only offered advice, in actual practice the Senate wielded enormous power because of the collective prestige of its members.

During the republic there were two different popular assemblies, the centuriate assembly and the tribal assembly. The centuriate assembly was military in nature it voted on war and peace and elected all those magistrates who exercised imperium (military power). The tribal assembly was a nonmilitary civilian assembly that elected those magistrates who did not exercise imperium. It did most of the legislating and sat as a court for serious public offenses.

In 451 bce Rome received its first written law code, inscribed upon 12 bronze tablets and publicly displayed in the forum. Its provisions concerned such matters as legal procedure, debt foreclosure, paternal authority over children, property rights, inheritance, and funerary regulations. This so-called Law of the Twelve Tables was to form the basis of all subsequent Roman private law.


History (HIST)

HIST 1 examines the development of western civilization, beginning with the ancient world of the Mediterranean, Europe, and Mesopotamia, and continuing through Early Modern Europe, which involves the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation, and the early period of the Age of Exploration. The course is intended to introduce aspects of Ancient, Medieval and Early Modern history that has helped to shape the developments of Western Civilization. The examination of written and visual primary sources, as well as secondary sources, allows this course to examine the political, religious, economic, and cultural development of the western world. The variety of sources used in the course aids the students in learning how to understand and interpret history, and encourages the students to develop a critical method by which to evaluate primary and secondary historical sources.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

HIST 1H examines the development of "Western" civilization, beginning with the ancient world of the Mediterranean, Europe, and Mesopotamia, and continuing through Early Modern Europe, which encompassed the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation, and the beginning of the Age of Exploration. The course is intended to introduce aspects of Ancient, Medieval, and Early Modern history that have helped to shape the developments of "Western" civilization, including elements of its political, religious, economic, and cultural developments. The variety of sources used in the course aids the students in learning how to understand and interpret history and how to develop a critical method by which to evaluate primary and secondary historical sources.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

A survey of the Western heritage from the ancient Mediterranean world to the dawn of modern Europe.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

This survey examines the history of "Western" civilization from the period of Early Modern Europe to the present. The development of social, political, and religious movements in Europe and the development of European colonies around the world had far-reaching, global repercussions. Among the broad developments of this complex period are the creation and collapse of several political and economic global empires, the development of modern nation states, revolutions in technology and industry, and the rise of nationalism, liberalism, socialism, and neoconservatism. The variety of sources used in this course will aid students in learning how to understand and interpret history and in encouraging them to develop a critical method by which to evaluate primary and secondary historical sources and to examine the political, religious, economic, and cultural developments of the "Western" world in the Early Modern and Modern periods.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This honors-level survey examines the history of "Western" civilization from the period of Early Modern Europe to the present. The development of social, political, and religious movements in Europe and the development of European colonies around the world had far-reaching, global repercussions. Among the broad developments of this complex period are the creation and collapse of several political and economic global empires, the development of modern nation states, revolutions in technology and industry, and the rise of nationalism, liberalism, socialism, and neoconservatism. The variety of sources used in this course will aid students in learning how to understand and interpret history and in encouraging them to develop a critical method by which to evaluate primary and secondary historical sources and to examine the political, religious, economic, and cultural developments of the "Western" world in the Early Modern and Modern periods.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

HIST/AMST 3 allows for faculty and students to work in a small setting in order to explore the history of the United States through a detailed interdisciplinary examination of a particular theme, institution, or person in American history. Faculty can structure their particular theme for this course, allowing for the incorporation of a wide range of materials, out of class field trips, examination of popular culture, primary source documents, and/or seminar-style discussions. For example, in recent years this course has been structured around the themes of "Utopianism in America" and "The Life, Times, and Legacies of Abraham Lincoln". In-depth examinations of such themes in American history offer students the opportunity to work closely with faculty in their area of interest, and to gain an understanding of American historiography and the historical profession.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Survey of the history and cultures of ancient Mediterranean civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syro-Levant, Anatolia, Greece, and Rome. CAMS (HIST) 5 Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations (3) (GHIL) This course provides an introduction to the history and cultural traditions of the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean. From the origins of cities and the invention of writing, it surveys the intellectual, artistic, and political traditions that laid the foundations for the later civilizations of Europe and western Asia. Students will acquire a basic historical framework for the ancient Mediterranean from the third millennium BCE through the end of antiquity in the first millennium CE. Within this framework cross-cultural relationships of time and ideas will be established among religious texts, epic literatures, and political and legal traditions. In the part of the world where the division between Asia and the East and Europe and the West was born, the course will examine the development of regional and ethnic identities along with the historical development of concepts of the universal nature of humanity. This course is designed to serve as the foundation course for all majors in the department of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies (CAMS).

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Survey of the history and cultures of ancient Mediterranean civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syro-Levant, Anatolia, Greece, and Rome. CAMS 5Z Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations (3) (GHIL), linked to ARTH 111Z. This course provides an introduction to the history and cultural traditions of the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean. From the origins of cities and the invention of writing, it surveys the intellectual, artistic, and political traditions that laid the foundations for the later civilizations of Europe and western Asia. Students will acquire a basic historical framework for the ancient Mediterranean from the third millennium BCE through the end of antiquity in the first millennium CE. Within this framework cross-cultural relationships of time and ideas will be established among religious texts, epic literatures, political and legal traditions, and their representations in art and architecture. In the part of the world where the division between Asia and the East and Europe and the West was born, the course will examine the development of regional and ethnic identities along with the historical development of concepts of the universal nature of humanity. This course is designed to serve as the foundation course for all majors in the department of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies (CAMS) and to provide a cultural and historical framework for interpreting the visual productions in art and architecture of these ancient cultures as they are examined in more detail in the linked ARTH 111Z course.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education - Integrative: Linked

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

In HIST 6N / METEO 6N, we'll survey how weather and history are integrated throughout time. Moving from past to present, the course will use case studies to navigate historical moments where weather shaped the outcome. Each case study will have a historical, cultural, and meteorological analysis of the event so students gain a deeper understanding of the national or international event and the integration of science and history. Weather has shaped the outcome of major world events. For example, a weather forecast led to the delay of the Allied invasion of Normandy (DDay), record cold weather in Florida led to the Challenger Space Shuttle explosion, General George Washington used fog to conceal the withdrawal of his troops at the Battle of Long Island, and the list goes on. The case studies range from the Revolutionary War through present day, and this period of history has been selected because there are firsthand accounts of the weather and/or recorded weather data for each event. The meteorological study examines the event's atmospheric conditions. How or why did they occur? How did they affect the event? Therefore, students will learn basic meteorology and climatology. They will also analyze weather maps and scientific data. The historical study provides context for the event. What lead to the event? What happened during the event? What are the event's lasting impacts? To better understand the decisions that leaders faced, students will be asked to assess risk and make decisions based on the same weather data or information leaders at the time had. Students will also explain the context, cause, and effects of major historical moments in everyday language to an audience of their peers through discussions and/or projects. The cultural study examines each event from a psychological and sociological point of view. What were the mindsets of the people and cultures involved in the event? How does the event connect to or parallel things in today's society? How would a present day culture react? This study will give students a better understanding of cultural differences in the world and how those cultural differences can alter the course of history. Time in the course is equally split between United States and international topics, and there will be frequent discussion of current events.

International Cultures (IL)

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Natural Sciences (GN)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

World Civilizations to 1500 is an introductory survey of the world's major civilizations from the rise of the earliest human communities to the age of global expansion in the sixteenth century. The emphasis will be on the distinctive histories and cultural values that shaped major regions and cross-cultural contacts between those regions. Students will learn how ancient to early modern societies adapted their environments, organized their political economies, expressed themselves in art and philosophy. The course provides a historical overview of global changes over time.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

World Civilizations since 1500 is an introductory survey of the world's major civilizations from the age of global expansion in the sixteenth century. The emphasis will be on the distinctive and interconnected histories and cultural values that shaped major regions and cross-cultural contacts between those regions in the early modern and modern eras. Students will learn how early modern societies adapted their environments, organized their political economies, shared technology and ideas as well as being drawn into conflict with one another. The course provides a historical overview of global changes over time.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

The course offers a chronological and topical survey, emphasizing immigration of diverse ethnic groups and religious, political, economic, and social developments, including industrialization and urbanization. This survey of the history of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania satisfies the Gen Ed GH requirement. Course content features important events and themes in the history of Pennsylvania, including colonial development, the importance of Philadelphia in the Revolutionary and Civil War Eras, immigration and urbanization, and labor unrest, as well as the continuing relevance of history to Pennsylvania today

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

An historical survey of the political, social, and economic development of America from colonial settlement through the Civil War and Reconstruction. This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. HIST 20 provides a historical overview of change over time in North America before 1877 with a focus on the diverse experiences of different groups of Americans. Students will receive an overview of the most important historical developments in America History from the colonial period through Reconstruction, including the history of American slavery, the evolution of American political systems, gender roles, and regional differences, changes in immigration, economic development, and the American Civil War and Reconstruction. While "knowing the facts" is obviously important to historical understanding, this course helps students develop critical thinking skills. These skills include: close and thoughtful reading and analysis of primary and secondary sources looking for a broader coherence or "order" to the material independent analysis and effective articulation (both in writing and in class discussion) of well-reasoned, well-crafted conclusions and interpretations and arguments (conclusions/interpretations / arguments which are supported by specific factual evidence derived from a variety of sources). The three specific course objectives underscore its scholarly dimensions: (1) Students will gain a knowledge and understanding of the diverse histories of the peoples of the United States prior to 1877 (2) Students will gain an understanding and knowledge of the domestic, transnational and global political and economic processes that have shaped the lives, labor, institutions and cultures of the United States before 1877 (3) Students will learn how to "think historically" by placing documents written in the past in their historical contexts, and to consider the relationship of the past to the present. By the end of the course students will: Demonstrate an understanding of the chronology of American history prior to 1877. Demonstrate an understanding of the diverse experiences of different groups of Americans prior to 1877. Demonstrate an understanding of the economic, social, and political structures that emerged before 1877 and continue to shape the modern United States.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course offers a writing-intensive historical survey of the political, social, and economic development of America from colonial period through the Civil War and Reconstruction, including the history of American slavery, the evolution of American political systems, gender roles, and regional differences, changes in immigration, economic development, and the American Civil War and Reconstruction. HIST 20Y provides a historical overview of change over time in North America before 1877 with a focus on the diverse experiences of different groups of Americans. Students learn how to "think historically", interpreting facts drawn from primary and secondary sources with the goal of understanding how historical events in America unfolded as they did. Students will learn how to recognize the relevance of the past to the present, and how to write to learn in ways that help them think about new material and learn to write in a historical genre.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Writing Across the Curriculum

An historical survey of the American experience from the emergence of urban-industrial society in the late nineteenth century to the present. This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. HIST 21 seeks to introduce students to salient events, developments, and themes of United State history since 1877, including westward expansion and the decline of the Native American, the industrial revolution, urbanization, immigration, Gilded Age culture and politics, the labor movement, imperialism, Progressivism, segregation and African-American response, the women's movement, World War I, the Great Depression and New Deal, World War II, post-war prosperity, the Cold War, the Civil Rights movement, the Vietnam War, the disillusionment of the 'Seventies', the Reagan revolution, and America in the post-Cold War era. The social and ideological diversity of the American experience is a prominent theme of HIST 21. Students learn how to "think historically", developing their capacity to identify and analyze key themes and issues from the past, critically assess primary sources, and sharpen their skills in marshaling data and concepts, and expressing them cogently in discussions and in writing.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course is a historical survey of the American experience from the emergence of urban-industrial society in the late nineteenth century to the present. This course seeks to introduce students to salient events, developments, and themes of United States history since 1877. Chief topics of the course include westward expansion and the decline of the Native American, the industrial revolution, urbanization, immigration, Gilded Age culture and politics, the labor movement, imperialism, Progressivism, segregation and African-American response, the women's movement, World War I, the Great Depression and New Deal, World War II, post-war prosperity, the Cold War, the Civil Rights movement, the Vietnam War, the disillusionment of the 'Seventies', the Reagan revolution, and America in the post-Cold War era. The social and ideological diversity of the American experience is a prominent theme of History 21Y.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Writing Across the Curriculum

This course is a survey of British history, which chronicles the origins and development of Great Britain from its Romano-Celtic past to the present. The course focuses on the long history of Britain, emphasizing its various and ever-changing political, cultural, economic, intellectual developments. The course is designed to instruct students on how to identify recurring trends and notable anomalies in how Britain developed and to recognize Britain's unique impact on broad international developments and on individual nations in both the past and present world.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

HIST 83, students are expected to master the subject material of this seminar, as well as to acquire basic skills useful to the study of the humanities and Liberal Arts. The topics chosen for these seminars will acquaint students with a major figure, theme, or development in a significant historical area. Through readings, discussions, lectures, and research projects, students will learn to read historical documents and secondary sources, discuss them, formulate effective arguments, and write essays and papers. Historical analysis of this type will provide students with techniques for appreciating and judging arguments and presentations in many fields of learning.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

The Greek world from the earliest Aegean cultures to the death of Alexander the Great and the beginnings of Hellenistic civilization. CAMS 100 / HIST 100 Ancient Greece (3) (GHIL)(BA) This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. The course presents a survey of ancient Greek history and culture beginning with the Bronze Age palace-states of Crete and Mycenae, examines the emergence of Greek city-states, notably Athens and Sparta, traces their transformation through conflicts among themselves and with the Persian empire, and describes their eventual eclipse by the kingdom of Macedon. Since this course treats the beginnings of historical writing among the Greeks, students learn to evaluate diverse historical texts and their relationship to legend, myth, and poetry. The nature of historical thought itself is emphasized throughout the course. Also emphasized is the debate between the egalitarian Justice of democracy, the sober wisdom of oligarchy, and the overwhelming power of monarchy, as experienced by the Greeks down to the end of the fourth century B.C.E.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Effective Communication

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

History of the Roman Republic and Empire from the origins of Rome to the disintegration of the Empire. CAMS 101 / HIST 101 The Roman Republic and Empire (3) (GHIL)(BA) This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements and fulfills 3 credits of the General Education-Humanities (GH) requirement. The course provides an introduction to the ancient Roman empire: how that empire came into being, how it evolved, how it came to govern much of the Mediterranean and European world, and how that empire declined. The course demonstrates the social and legal structures employed by a past society to govern an ethnically and religiously diverse population. The course also introduces students to the sources of our knowledge of the past, and illustrates how these sources are to be critically evaluated. This course complements other courses on the ancient Mediterranean world (such as HIST 100 / CAMS 100) and is a prerequisite to more advanced (400-level) courses in ancient Mediterranean history.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Effective Communication

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course is an overview of the ancient history and cultures of Canaan (the Mediterranean Levant of Syria-Palestine) and the emergence of Israel. It involves a critical view of biblical texts (especially the Hebrew Bible, aka Old Testament) in light of other ancient texts, archaeology, and historical methods, in order to explain the nature and the evolution of society, religion, and thought in the prebiblical and biblical era. We will be especially interested in the period from the end of the Late Bronze Age (c. 1200 BCE) to the Persian period (539-332 BCE), and will examine ongoing debates about the Bible and history, as well as the development of Israelite religion from polytheism toward monotheism and a distinctive worldview.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Effective Communication

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

More than perhaps any other set of human afflictions, the phenomena that have gone under the names of "madness," "insanity," "lunacy," and "mental illness" have historically provoked a wide variety of often contradictory reactions. Those who have been in the throes of "madness" have described experiences ranging from an ecstatic sense of holiness to being beset by undeniable impulses to feelings of unending despair. Observers have sought explanations for the behavior of "touched" and "crazy" individuals by invoking such things as sin, destiny, heredity, moral degeneracy, upbringing, trauma, fatigue, and body chemistry. Those afflicted have been admired, pitied, mocked, hidden from public view, canonized, imprisoned, restrained, operated on, sterilized, hospitalized, killed, counseled, analyzed, and medicated. Why? This course will examine the ideas that have shaped European and American perceptions of madness, insanity, and mental illness. This course will be an introduction to the modern history of "madness" in the Western world. In particular, we will examine the ideas that have shaped European and American perceptions of madness, insanity, and mental illness the changing experiences of those afflicted the development of those professions designed to look after those deemed mad, insane, and mentally ill and the social and cultural assumptions behind treatments, policies, and public opinions.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course will track the history of Egypt, the first nation state in the world, covering a time span of over 3,000 years. The investigation of the history will focus primarily on the major players (i.e. the pharaohs themselves) and the political events that shaped their reigns. Its history involves not only the Nile Valley, but also that of the entire northeast African continent and lands of Western Asia. The magnificent ruins and artifacts that have survived offer the student a visual examination of the ancients and will provide illustration to a great extent of the specific time periods and dramatic incidents. The student will also be confronted at every turn by textual sources (in translation) and the archaeological evidence. The latter will be addressed at length with introduction to archaeological expeditions. This will serve to teach the student the contribution of archaeological method and interpretation in the knowledge and understanding of the history of the Near East.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course examines the development and history of the Byzantine Empire from the decline of the Roman Empire to the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453. As the Roman Empire disintegrated, the West slowly developed into smaller kingdoms, while the East survived in a unified empire centered on Constantinople. Modern scholars call this eastern empire, and its culture, Byzantine. This course examines the process by which the Latin imperial culture of Rome was transformed into a profoundly Greek culture, which for centuries represented the model against which other civilizations ¿ the various kingdoms of the Latin West, the Islamic caliphates of Damascus and Baghdad, and the Slavic chieftaincies of eastern Europe ¿ measured themselves.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Development of Byzantine civilization from the decline of the Roman Empire to the fall of Constantinople.

This course examines the history of the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal empires, from their origins to the Safavid Collapse, a historical time period covering approximately 1300 to 1722. Each week, the class will focus on a major turning point or theme using a combination of regional case studies and primary sources. In the process, students will be exposed to ongoing historiographical debates about a variety of events and trends in Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal history. Topics covered include war, diplomacy, urbanism, architecture, science, religion, technology, and art. This course focuses on and examines how the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal states evolved in a changing global context.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

HIST 107 / MEDVL 107 examines the history of Europe from c. 300-c. 1400 CE. The many themes of this course include: the development of political, judicial and diplomatic institutions the role of religion, especially that of Christianity in all its forms - orthodox, heretical, and popular - as a significant element of medieval society the development of royal houses and changes in economic and social life of medieval Europe. Within these primary themes, the course addresses many subjects, including the development of both secular and ecclesiastical authority, various efforts to control or wield violence, and the importance of a number of agricultural and economic changes that transformed Europe.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

The course examines the social and political history of the "Crusades", one form of holy war in medieval Europe, the Levant, and North Africa, focusing primarily on the period from the 11th through the 14th centuries, but also offering background to, as well the history of later repercussions of, the "Crusades". This warfare of the Central and Late Middle Ages, later called "Crusades", were fought in many geographical regions, including the Levant, the Baltic, the Iberian peninsula, southern France, and North Africa. The course addresses various elements of this kind of medieval warfare, and examines how such "crusading" evolved with complex political, religious, and economic origins.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course explores the major themes of U.S. Environmental History, examining changes in the American landscape, the development of ideas about nature in the United States, and the history of U.S. environmental activism. Throughout the course, we will be exploring definitions of nature, environment, and environmental history as we investigate the interactions between Americans and their physical worlds. HIST 109 provides an introduction to environmental history as a field of scholarship that examines changing relationships between human beings and the natural world. Environmental history centers on the examination of various questions about such relationships, including exploring how natural forces shape history, how humankind affects nature, and how those ecological changes then reciprocally influence human life. Major themes of the course include: (1) recognizing that American history has a natural context (2) that relationships between nature and culture change over time and (3) that knowledge about nature is socially constructed and historically contingent.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course provides a broad introduction to the history of human relationships with nature throughout the world. The human relationship with the natural environment the world of plants, animals, and microbes, of air, water, and land is an important historical subject. History 110 provides a broad, thematic description and analysis of major global trends and shifts, with an emphasis on contemporary issues and problem solving. The most important goal of the course is to provide students with the historical context necessary to construct a thoughtful appreciation of the environmental dilemmas of our time. Ecology has contributed a great deal to historical understanding in terms of specific examples or case studies however, it has also begun to reconstruct the overall structure of the history that we teach. History 110 seeks to leverage this new paradigm by encouraging students to break down the barriers that often divide the humanities and the sciences. This course utilizes environmental science to demonstrate and explain specific human tendencies. Finally, this course is structured to help students better situate the history of the United States in a more global centered view of both the past and contemporary environmental concerns. Particularly in relation to contemporary environmental issues, History 110 will make clear that many environmental problems are local in neither their construction nor impact. The course will focus on several critical points, including: How has the non-human world shaped the course of human history? What were the environmental impacts of historic changes in the ways humans produced and consumed resources? What ideas shaped the ways different groups of people defined and used specific resources? What role have science and technology played in changing popular attitudes about the human place in the world?

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course is a historical analysis of agriculture and food production in the United States. It includes examination of the history of food production and consumption patterns, the food industry, food marketing, and the politics and regulation of the American food system. This course explores the food system as a nexus that brings together history, technology, and culture in ways that have significant impacts on human livelihoods and wellbeing. A core theme of the course will be consideration of questions about food ethics and the challenge of improving the sustainability of food systems including the need to maintain or increase improvements in productivity while also addressing social effects and reducing environmental impacts of food production.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Introduction to Public History lays a broad foundation for history-based careers in museums, historic site management, foundations, and government services. Practicing as a historian outside of a classroom opens worlds of very diverse professional opportunities. This course is designed to introduce students to that wide world and equip them to experiment with it. It teaches theories of public history practice, along with basic approaches and perspectives on audience development, collection management, interpretation, and organizational management and finance that all public historians need to know to succeed. The course will consider the past and future of the field. Students should encounter public history practice there are various ways to make that happen, including meeting practicing public historians through field trips and/or in class, preparing a grant application, and presenting a modest Public History project in class. Public history offers opportunities to students in communication, media, management, finance/accounting, and education, as well as history. This course is the first stage of a public history emphasis or minor (when available) but also stands alone as an introduction to a growing and promising field of work for students drawn to history but seeking professional opportunities beyond graduate work and teaching.

Concurrent: HIST 20 or HIST 21 or HIST 1 or HIST 2

United States Cultures (US)

This course offers a comparative survey of baseball history from its origins in the nineteenth century to the present. The course uses the broad cultural and geographic diffusion of baseball over time to examine the diverse and changing social, economic, and political meanings of this activity in different cultural settings, emphasizing the ways in which a common activity may acquire unique meanings in different cultures. Although North America, Cuba, and Japan demand attention as the most striking examples of baseball's pervasive impact, the course will also consider baseball as a global phenomenon, for example, exploring the minimal impact or failure of baseball promotions in many European and African societies.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course will explore how historical context influenced major innovators in health care. It will pursue the general education objectives of 1) integrative thinking, and 2) social responsibility and ethical reasoning. GH learning criteria will include: 1) knowledge of major cultural current issues and developments through time, 2) competence in critical thinking about topics in the humanities, and 3) familiarity with groups, individuals, ideas, or events that have influenced the experiences and values of different communities. GS learning criteria will include the abilities to: 1) describe the ways in which many different factors may interact to influence behaviors and/or institutions, 2) explain how social science researchers work to better understand and address world problems, and 3) recognize social, cultural, political and/or ethical implications of work in the social and behavioral sciences.

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Soc Resp and Ethic Reason

Chronological and topical survey of the story of Jewish life in America. We will trace the social, religious, cultural, and political developments in the Jewish community from the Colonial Period to the present. Topics to be covered include immigration, acculturation, ethnicity, gender, politics, and communal and religious innovation. While "knowing the facts" is obviously important to historical understanding, this course helps students develop critical thinking skills. These skills include: close and thoughtful reading and analysis of primary and secondary sources looking for a broader coherence or "order" to the material independent analysis and effective articulation (both in writing and in class discussion) of well-reasoned, well-crafted conclusions and interpretations and arguments (conclusions/interpretations/arguments which are supported by specific factual evidence derived from a variety of sources). The three specific course objectives underscore its scholarly dimensions: (1) Students will gain a knowledge and understanding of the relationship between the experiences of members of the American Jewish community and United States history as a whole. (2) Students will gain an understanding and knowledge of the political, economic, and social processes that shaped the American Jewish experience. (3) Students will learn how to "think historically" by placing documents written in the past in their historical contexts, and to consider the relationship of the past to the present. By the end of the course students will: Demonstrate an understanding of the chronology of American Jewish history. Demonstrate an understanding of the diverse experiences of different groups of Americans. Demonstrate an understanding of the social, political, and ideological structures that shaped the American Jewish experience and continue to shape the modern United States.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Historical perspectives on the western family since 1500: gender roles, marriage, sexuality, child rearing, and old age emphasis on United States.

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)

This course explores the transformation of modern families in the "Western" world, beginning with the basic context and elements of families as early as sixteenth-century Europe and Colonial America. The course has a primary focus on marriage, parents and children, and gender in the context of the history of family, family life, and gender roles in the United States. The course focuses on the social history of families, encompassing the ever-changing elements of sociological, political, and gender history within American families.

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

International Cultures (IL)

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

HIST 117 / WMNST 117 provides students with an overview of the most important historical developments in the history of women in the United States, including women's actual experiences as members of a class, a race, and an ethnic community, the progress women have made as individuals, workers, and citizens as well as the opposition they have faced. While ¿knowing the facts¿ is obviously important to historical understanding, this course helps students develop critical thinking skills. These skills include: close and thoughtful reading and analysis of primary and secondary sources looking for a broader coherence or ¿order¿ to the material independent analysis and effective articulation (both in writing and in class discussion) of well-reasoned, well-crafted conclusions and interpretations and arguments (conclusions/interpretations/arguments which are supported by specific factual evidence derived from a variety of sources). The three specific course objectives underscore its scholarly dimensions: (1) Students will gain a knowledge and understanding of the diverse experiences of different groups of American women. (2) Students will gain an understanding and knowledge of the political, economic, and social processes that shaped the history of women in the United States. (3) Students will learn how to ¿think historically¿ by placing documents written in the past in their historical contexts, and to consider the relationship of the past to the present. By the end of the course students will: Demonstrate an understanding of the chronology of United States women¿s history. Demonstrate an understanding of the diverse experiences of different groups of American women. Demonstrate an understanding of the social, political, and ideological structures that shaped the history of American women and continue to shape the modern United States.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Modern Jewish history is a complex and fascinating story. Some scholars depicted it as a long period of suffering and isolation that culminated in the Holocaust and only ended with the founding of the state of Israel. In recent decades a more balanced perspective has found wide acceptance. Today scholars highlight Jewish agency and different conditions in the various places Jews settled without downplaying anti-Jewish prejudice and violence. A recurring theme in this course concerns the relationship between individual Jews and Jewish communities, and on a broader level, the perception and treatment of Jews by societies and states. As Jews in Western and Central Europe "left the Ghetto" around 1800 and became citizens of states, they redefined their relationship to Jewish communities in strikingly different ways. Some Jewish women and men emerged as agents of change, others resisted change. We will explore Jewish "responses to modernity," ranging from assimilation, Zionism, and socialism to migration. While many Jews in Western Europe and the United States prospered, the lives of Jews (and their neighbors) in Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire were shaped by social and economic crisis (albeit not constantly and not everywhere). For the twentieth century the course will concentrate on three major events that had a dramatic impact on Jews, especially in Europe: the First World War and the collapse of the large multiethnic Empires in Eastern Europe, the Holocaust and the founding of the first modern Jewish state, Israel.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Effective Communication

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

Survey of the development of gender roles in Western societies from the prehistoric era to the early modern period.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

This course traces the history of modern Europe, beginning with a brief contextual background of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. The course then focuses primarily on the political, economic, and social developments in Europe from rise of the European nation state during the nineteenth century through the present day. The course examines several broad topics, including the political and ideological developments of this period in European history the origins and enduring impact of two World Wars the developments of totalitarianism, fascism, socialism, and democracy in Europe and Europe's political and economic roles in the modern world.

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course focuses on the history and historiography of the Holocaust from 1933-1945. In addition to cultivating intellectual skills, such as critical analysis and concise presentation, the primary purpose of this course is to provide an in-depth overview of the Holocaust. The course will touch on various aspects of the Holocaust, including the function of the "Ghettos", the role of the mobile killing units, extermination camps, Jewish resistance, the role of the Allies, Holocaust trials, and the question how the Holocaust can be compared with other genocides. The course will analyze the Holocaust using historical, literary, and philosophical approaches.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

The main goal of this course is to think through and understand major developments, ideas and issues in natural philosophy. "Natural philosophy" is the premodern term for science. The term "science" began to acquire its modern meanings around 1840. The geographic focus of this course is the Mediterranean region and Europe, but we will also investigate early science in China, the Indian subcontinent, and the Islamic world. The temporal coverage of this course is vast: from about 10,000 years ago to the 19th century. As is common in history courses, it will be essential for us temporarily to set aside modern and contemporary biases and ways of thinking. Our goal is to understand the world as ancient and premodern people did. Issues of religion will constantly make appearances in this course. If you have studied world religions already, that is great, but if not, the books and lectures will provide the essential points as we go along. You should also use Wikipedia or similar reference tools to look up any key term or concept that does not make sense to you, whether with respect to lectures or the books. It is your job to make an active effort to master the material. This course is ideal for anyone pursuing a scientific or technical major, but anyone should benefit from it. We will be exploring some of the most important issues that have shaped our world, key developments in the human capacity for creating knowledge and useful technologies, and, in some cases, innovative solutions to vexing problems. We will also examine some of the ways that social institutions, belief systems, and paradigms (models) have helped both to organize and to constrain human knowledge. If all goes reasonably well, this course will enhance your knowledge and open your mind to hitherto unfamiliar ways of thinking and approaches to problems.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

A history of science and culture from the scientific revolution to the present. HIST 123 examines the intellectual, social, and cultural history of science from the Scientific Revolution to the present. The course covers a range of theoretical and applied disciplines, including engineering and medicine. In addition to major discoveries and new ideas, methods, and tools, the course examines the effect of social conditions on science as well as the impact science has had on society. Scientific developments in the Western world, broadly defined, constitute the organizing framework of the course, but the course also examines science in non-Western cultures

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course explores the history of health, illness, and medicine in western society from Ancient Egypt through the modern world. Relying on both primary and secondary sources, the course examines major developments in the understanding of health, illness, medical treatment, and medical practice in western society from Ancient Egypt to the present. The course will explore such themes as the changing status of medical practitioners, the experience of patients in different historical settings, artistic depictions of illness and healing, and the increasingly prominent role of medicine in public policy in order to better understand the links between medicine and its social, cultural, intellectual, and political contexts.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Infectious diseases once thought to be nearly eradicated have seen a resurgence in recent years. The majority of the cases arose from people who deliberately chose not to vaccinate their children against these disease. Even in the twenty-first century the nature of disease and how to prevent it is not merely a matter of science, but an issue laden with cultural, political, and religious concerns. This course charts the history of disease both as a subject of scientific inquiry and a cultural and religious phenomenon. We will begin with early Greek and Egyptian attempts to understand disease as a foreign entity attacking the body and end in the twenty-first century with current ideas surrounding the use of antibiotics, vaccines, and emerging threats throughout the world. Along the way we will discuss the impact of significant epidemics - for example, Bubonic Plague, Syphilis, and Influenza - as well as changing scientific thinking of both how to deal with disease and how to understand the natural world. In tandem with the historical background key scientific ideas necessary for studying disease - including current understanding of the microbial world, microscopy techniques, and modern gene theory - will be presented to the students through classroom instruction and virtual laboratories.

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Natural Sciences (GN)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Effective Communication

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

This course provides an interdisciplinary introduction to the study of Latinas and Latinos in the United States. The course includes a historical overview of the major events in the U.S. Southwest, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America that led to the creation of Latina/o communities in this country. Students will examine the formation of racial and class hierarchies within U.S. Latina/o communities the processes of (international and regional) migration gendered hierarchies and responses to sexism and the complexities of U.S. Latina/o identity.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course will investigate the development of mathematical thought in multiple Afro-Eurasian cultures from the Bronze Age through the early medieval period, including Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, India, China, and the Islamic world. Math will be examined as a cultural product, with specific developments contextualized in the generating civilization's history, socio-political structures, economic systems, artistic and literary movements, and prevailing religious and philosophical ideas. Students will investigate the ways in which specific aspects of a culture influenced the development of specific ideas about, approaches to, and techniques regarding number and mathematical processes. Key themes in this respect will be what social forces encourage the development of practical or theoretical mathematics how a society determines what is truth the conception of abstract ideas such as zero and negative, infinite, and irrational numbers the social status of mathematicians and their relationship with political and social authorities and what social forces hinder the development of practical and/or theoretical mathematics. Students will also consider how the availability of certain mathematical knowledge enabled the development of particular social systems, architectural achievements, and more. Key themes in this respect will be the mathematical needs of specific political systems (such as the accounting involved in imperial administration), legal systems (such as fair division of goods), and religious systems (such as the calculation of accurate systems of time). At the same time, students will draw connections across time periods and cultures by examining the interactions between civilizations and how those interactions influenced the development of mathematics as a human endeavor. Key themes in this respect will be understanding what political, economic, and other forces cause cultures to come into contact or seek out contact and how the exchange of knowledge shapes both the receiving culture and the study of mathematics as a whole. As part of this course, students will study both specific mathematical ideas (e.g., number systems, deductive reasoning, geometric algebra, and the motivating problems that spurred development) and the specific ancient and medieval cultures named above.

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Natural Sciences (GN)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

This course will examine the "world" of chocolate throughout human history. First cultivated by the ancient peoples of the Americas and then manufactured by Europeans and Pennsylvanians alike, chocolate has played a privileged role as a luxury good. An interdomain course, "Chocolate Worlds" is interdisciplinary, taught by faculty in the departments of Plant Science, Anthropology, and History. As a team we investigate the how diverse societies have differentially interacted with this crop. Rather than be organized chronologically, this course will be divided into course Units, such as the history of cocoa uses and cultivation, cocoa plant science and farming issues, chocolate making and markets, and the state of the global chocolate industry. The course's lectures and assigned readings work in concert equally directed by scientific inquiry and the queries of the social sciences and humanities. Assignments will address real world questions relating to contemporary cocoa cultivation and production, and its role in international development and social justice. As a class we will take field trips to sites such as local chocolate manufacturing facilities and cocoa research sites and laboratories. The learning objectives of this course include students' broad knowledge of cacao production, its history, and ethnical issues surrounding its cultivation in today's global economy. Additionally, students will gain an historical appreciation for the role this crop his played in diverse human societies and a scientific understanding of its genetic structure.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Natural Sciences

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Natural Sciences (GN)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

Survey of the causes and consequences of America's deadliest conflict, the Civil War, from the end of the U.S.-Mexican War in 1848 through the end of Reconstruction in 1877. This course meets the Bachelor of Arts degree requirements. HIST 130 is a general survey of the American Civil War Era that satisfies the Gen Ed GH requirement. Course content features the causes of the war, the conflict itself, the consequences for the meaning of freedom in the United States, and the continuing relevance of this conflict today. Students will become familiar with American slavery Northern and Southern social, cultural, political, and economic composition the military progress of the war problems on the home front the struggle for emancipation and the creation of a new nation based on free labor.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Survey of the causes and consequences of America's deadliest conflict, the Civil War, from the end of the U.S.-Mexican War in 1848 through the end of Reconstruction in 1877. HIST 130H is an honors course surveying the American Civil War Era that satisfies the Gen Ed GH requirement. Course content features the causes of the war, the conflict itself, the consequences for the meaning of freedom in the United States, and the continuing relevance of this conflict today. Students will become familiar with American slavery Northern and Southern social, cultural, political, and economic composition the military progress of the war problems on the home front the struggle for emancipation and the creation of a new nation based on free labor. The honors course will also take time to go further in depth in discussion and analysis of significant trends and topics in the history of the Civil War Era through intensive focus on primary sources in discussion and written assignments.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course provides a general introduction to two very different modes of thinking about race and slavery in the United States between the 1770s and the 1860s. The first half of the class will present historians' interpretations of the lives of slaves, the politics of slavery, and the Civil War. The other half of the class is devoted to examining cinematic and artistic treatments of slavery and the Civil War. Overall, the course will focus on the differences and tensions between historians' methods and ways of knowing about and understanding the world, versus the essential truths that artists try to present in film while focusing on the specifics of slavery and the Civil War in the United States. Rather than privileging one way of knowing over the other, the course will focus on the strengths and limits of each. In addition, the course will examine how collective historical memories concerning race, slavery, and the Civil War are created and contested. The first half of the class offers an historical analysis of the history of slavery in the United States between the American Revolution in the 1770s and the American Civil War in the 1860s. The second part of the class will focus on cinematic presentations of slavery and the Civil War. The second part of the course will NOT focus on using historical facts to evaluate a film's fidelity to history as a scholarly discipline. It will instead examine film as art, as a commercial endeavor, and as a cultural product. It will then explore how different filmmakers portray slavery and the Civil War in different genres how films reflect the period of their production and the personality of their producers the commercial demands of filmmaking and how that limits subject matter and how films shape collective historical memories. Students will also learn the basics of film criticism.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Arts (GA)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Effective Communication

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

This course provides an interdisciplinary introduction to the study of Latinas and Latinos in the United States. The course includes a historical overview of the major events in the U.S. Southwest, Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America that led to the creation of Latina/o communities in this country. Students will examine the formation of racial and class hierarchies within U.S. Latina/o communities the processes of (international and regional) migration gendered hierarchies and responses to sexism and the complexities of U.S. Latina/o identity. HIST 134 provides a survey of the history and cultures of Great Britain and Ireland from 1400 to 1800. The course particularly focuses on the diversity of English, Welsh, Scottish, and Irish cultures and customs, their influence on early forms of nationalism in the British Isles, and their importance in the formation of the modern British nation-state. The relationships between English and Scottish protestants, the importance of translating the Book of Common Prayer from English to Welsh, and the influence of Irish-born families of English descent on the governance of early modern Ireland were all key elements in the emergence of an empire under the authority of an English dynastic state whose practical control over the territories it claimed to govern often remained quite limited. Through an examination of primary and secondary historical sources. students will consider the dynamism of this process, involving complex interrelationships, rather than the simple supremacy of one ethnic group over another.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course covers the origins of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and how the issues at stake changed over time, up to the present day. The course situates the conflict in the history of the Middle East and the larger context of international relations, including the Cold War and the end of the Cold War. Topics include regional warfare and its significance, efforts at peacemaking, and social, economic, and cultural developments among Israelis and Palestinians.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course is an introductory survey, including political, social, economic, and cultural development of Kievan, Muscovite, and Imperial Russia. Tracing the history of Russia from the ninth to early twentieth century, this course examines the central role of the people, politics and culture at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Particular topics include the rise of the Kievan State, the Mongol rule, the rise of Muscovy, Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great, relations with Western Europe up until the end of imperial Russia under the last tsar of Russia, Nicholas II. It offers a basic knowledge of the cultural, political, economic, artistic and historical background of this vital region of the world.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course examines the development of communism, one of the most powerful ideologies to have developed in modern history. This course first explores the writings of Marx and his advocates, notably Engels and Lenin, in order to understand why the first communist regime emerged in the unlikeliest of places: Russia. This course then examines the developments of communism through the evolution of the Soviet Union, the formation and development of the Communist bloc, the impact of Chinese communism, and the impact of Communist ideologies in other areas of the world, such as Cuba.

Bachelor of Arts: Other Cultures

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course studies the developments of right-wing totalitarianism in the twentieth century with special emphasis on Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, which provided the roots for fascist developments in the modern world. The course concerns itself with understanding the social, political, and economic contexts of fascism, its governing assumptions, ideals, and values, how it worked in practice, and its consequences and historical implications. Another focus will be on the question of why these illiberal, anti-democratic, and ultimately murderous regimes appear to have appealed to many groups during the 1930s and 1940s, not only within Italy and Germany, but also within broader European society.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

History 144 provides an in-depth study of World War II, which brought many new aspects to modern warfare: civilians were the majority of casualties, deliberate air attacks were made on cities, research brought the advent of new technologies, and several of the global belligerents represented the participation of militaristic totalitarian states where dictators had risen to power with considerable popular support. Thus, topics of the course include: the origins of the war political and economic struggles leading to the conflict actions of both Axis and Allied military forces broad violence in the forms of rape and genocide and the aftermath of the struggle.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

In-depth study of the origins and conduct of World War II. Political and economic aspects as well as military.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

This inter-domain course integrates historical (GH) study of the Holocaust with sociological (GS) perspectives on the Holocaust and human rights. Topical content begins with historical antisemitism ("the longest hatred") and elaborates the history of the Holocaust in German and in Europe. A second half of the course explores consequent definitions of genocide and human rights, globally established by the United Nations through international law. Post-war campaigns to reduce prejudice and to raise 'Holocaust consciousness' are presented along with sociological insights into problems of persecution through eugenics, xenophobia, and racialized inequalities. Survivor testimonies underscore the value of resilience and the ethics of standing up against injustice, including discrimination or persecution based on cultural or another group identification.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Crit and Analytical Think

GenEd Learning Objective: Global Learning

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Soc Resp and Ethic Reason

The study of East European Jewish history, fascinating in its own right, is also key to understanding the lived experience of modernity in a complicated and compelling part of the world. This course will thus seek to examine East European Jewry from the inside and from the outside. We will see how a minority community weathered the storms of modernity, while at the same time noting how their experiences reflect on the broader culture and forces around them. We will look to examine the entire East European Jewish landscape, but with particular attention to Russia and Poland. In addition to the textbooks, we will read articles on economics, culture, politics, gender, religion and literature, as well as reading primary documents. Students who complete the readings and written assignments and participate in class should expect to expand their knowledge of the East European Jewish past as well as enhancing their skills as historians.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

International Cultures (IL)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course examines the complex history of Penn State. The time period covered extends from mid-19th century origins as the Farmers' High School to the highly complex, multi-faceted, modern "research university" of the early 21st century. The course will study closely: the conduct, leadership, perspectives, and educational visions of notable presidents, administrators, and faculty (such as George Atherton, Edwin Sparks, Ralph Hetzel, Milton Eisenhower, Eric Walker, Jesse Arnelle, Howard Davidson, Della Durant, Seth Williams among many others) various dimensions of student life (including student protest and the demise of loci parentis) race and gender relations athletics and the challenges of university life, research, admissions, co-education and achieving diversity in the post-World War II era. The Penn State experience will be examined in the context of larger historical developments in American higher education, student life and attitudes, and the broad political / economic / social and legal environment. Comparisons will be made to other colleges and universities. Using primary and secondary historical sources, this course pursues a distinctly historical angle particular emphasis will be placed on chronicling and evaluating change over time and thoughtful consideration of a diversity of voices and perspectives

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course offers an introduction to the history of the United States in the 1960s. The dual goals of this course are to instill a particular body of knowledge - in this case, America in the 1960s, and to provide students with tools that will help formulate interpretations of this crucial period in U.S. history. Topics covered will include the leadership of John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, and Richard Nixon the struggle for civil rights for people of color the emergence of student movements across the country the steady escalation of US involvement in Vietnam shifting relations across gender lines, and particularly the rise of the modern feminist movement and, finally, the growing influence of popular culture, such as music, literature, and film.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

This course examines the development of technology in the United States from the colonial period to the present, and places into a historical context the reception and influence of these technological developments on the social, economic, and political life of the United States. The technologies serving American society--past and present--range widely and include, for example, new harvesting techniques, railroads and motor vehicles, assembly-line mass production, and electricity and its multiple dependent technologies. Technologies have always influenced, and been influenced by, human societies this course examines how technologies and Americans have interacted and influenced each other.

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

General Education: Social and Behavioral Scien (GS)

General Education - Integrative: Interdomain

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

Chronological and topical survey of the history of African Americans from the colonial period to the early twenty-first century. This course covers major themes in African American history including the societies and cultures of Africa, the Middle Passage, the Colonial experience, slavery, abolition, and the quest for freedom, Civil War and emancipation, Reconstruction, Jim Crow, the Great Migration, African American cultural expressions, WWII and the seeds of Civil Rights, the Freedom Movement, Black politics and White backlash. While "knowing the facts" is obviously important to historical understanding, this course helps students develop critical thinking skills. These skills include: close and thoughtful reading and analysis of primary and secondary sources looking for a broader coherence or "order" to the material independent analysis and effective articulation (both in writing and in class discussion) of well-reasoned, well-crafted conclusions and interpretations and arguments (conclusions/interpretations/arguments which are supported by specific factual evidence derived from a variety of sources). The three specific course objectives underscore its scholarly dimensions: (1) Students will gain a knowledge and understanding of the relationship between the experiences of African Americans and United States history as a whole. (2) Students will gain an understanding and knowledge of the political, economic, and social processes that shaped African American history. (3) Students will learn how to "think historically" by placing documents written in the past in their historical contexts, and to consider the relationship of the past to the present. By the end of the course students will: Demonstrate an understanding of the chronology of African American history. Demonstrate an understanding of the diverse experiences of different groups of Americans. Demonstrate an understanding of the social, political, and ideological structures that shaped African American history and continue to shape the modern United States.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

HIST 153 provides students with an overview of the most important historical developments in the history of America's Native people, including first contact with Europeans, diplomacy and war, assimilation and cultural traditions, military service and the rise of Native casinos. While "knowing the facts" is obviously important to historical understanding, this course helps students develop critical thinking skills. These skills include: close and thoughtful reading and analysis of primary and secondary sources looking for a broader coherence or "order" to the material independent analysis and effective articulation (both in writing and in class discussion) of well-reasoned, well-crafted conclusions and interpretations and arguments (conclusions/interpretations/arguments which are supported by specific factual evidence derived from a variety of sources). The three specific course objectives underscore its scholarly dimensions: (1) Students will gain a knowledge and understanding of the diverse experiences of different groups of Native people. (2) Students will gain an understanding and knowledge of the political, economic, and social processes that shaped Native American history. (3) Students will learn how to "think historically" by placing documents written in the past in their historical contexts, and to consider the relationship of the past to the present. By the end of the course students will: Demonstrate an understanding of the chronology of Native America history. Demonstrate an understanding of the diverse experiences of different groups of Native peoples. Demonstrate an understanding of the social, political, and ideological structures that shaped the history of Native peoples and continue to shape the modern United States.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

A survey of the American Indian from prehistory to the present.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

Writing Across the Curriculum

History of care of the impoverished (emphasis on gender, race, nationality, age of poor, and welfare givers), 18th century to present.

Bachelor of Arts: Humanities

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

This course examines major developments in the history of modern American business and industry from the colonial period to the present. History 155 introduces students to a number of the main themes, concepts, and events comprising American business history. Although the course has a pronounced big business/large corporation focus, it nonetheless provides a broader perspective than simply one of selected corporate histories. Indeed, the course treats the conduct of business as an integral element of American society and culture. Topics to be discussed include the colonial commitment to commerce, the effects of new technologies, the emergence of modern large-scale industrial production and the changes it brought to business management, and the importance of world events and American businesses.

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

United States Cultures (US)

General Education: Humanities (GH)

GenEd Learning Objective: Integrative Thinking

GenEd Learning Objective: Key Literacies

A study of the American worker from the preindustrial era to the present.

Bachelor of Arts: Social and Behavioral Sciences

United States Cultures (US)

HIST157 shows that, without railroads, the United States would not have become the United States. It provides a panoramic view of 200 years, from the earliest rail lines to the current day and shows how the rail industry affected everything, from the economy to daily life. One of the course's central objectives is to demonstrate how these changes were experienced differently by different communities and social groups.. The first half of the course investigates how and why the American rail network was built and how the public and government reacted to the changes it brought. It reviews the financial, geographical, and legal resources needed to build the first rail lines and why they proved to be superior to roads and canals. During and after the Civil War, the building of the transcontinental lines relied heavily on federal aid and the labor of minorities (including African American, Irish, and Chinese). Although many Americans initially embraced the railroad industry, after experiencing improvements in their local economies and lifestyles, many turned against it in the late nineteenth century. Hard economic times turned labor against management, farmers against the industrial centers, nativist Americans against immigrants, and so on. After two decades of protest, the reformers of the Progressive era passed sweeping legislation to regulate the industry. The second half of the course studies how railroads declined during the twentieth century and how government regulations were relaxed. In addition to the challenges of two world wars and The Great Depression, it explores how railroads experienced new economic and technological pressures. These include competition from motor vehicles and airplanes, which led railroads to lose most of their passengers and much of their freight. The change from steam to diesel locomotives brought difficulties for rail communities and rail workers. The course investigates how demands made by labor often served to alienate public opinion. Although streamlined passenger trains briefly regained public enthusiasm, this soon dwindled in the post-WW2 years, as Americans embraced the automobile and the airplane. By the 1970s, railroad troubles were extreme enough to test America's sense of balance between free enterprise and government aid. Despite public criticism, the federal government intervened, to create Amtrak and then Conrail. The final sections of the course investigate how the relaxation of federal regulations led to a partial rail renaissance. It shows how freight service has been a great success but why inter-city passenger service continues to be unattractive to many American citizens and investors.


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