11 June 1945

11 June 1945

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11 June 1945




Japanese troops recapture I-shan

New Guinea

Australian troops land near Chabai

Today in World War II History—June 11, 1940 & 1945

Italian Val Dora battalion of the 5th Alpini Regiment in action in the Colle della Pelouse during the Italian invasion of France in June 1940 (public domain from the L’illustrazione italiana, 19 July 1942, via Wikimedia Commons)

80 Years Ago—June 11, 1940: Gen. Maxime Weygand decides to declare Paris an open city, although civilians aren’t informed for another two days.

Italian troops invade France along the Riviera and in the Alps, but do not advance.

Italian planes bomb Malta in the first of 3340 Axis air raids to the island over the next three years.

Britain orders the internment of all male Italians ages 17-70 who have resided in Britain under 20 years, including those who fled Mussolini’s regime.

75 Years Ago—June 11, 1945: Czechoslovakia begins expulsion of 3 million ethnic Germans.

Learn More

  • Search the collection American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940 on world war to read more recollections of World War I.
  • View Woodrow Wilson’s notes, written in shorthand, for his Fourteen Points address. In this famous address to Congress on January 8, 1918, Wilson outlined the terms that he believed should be used as the basis for the treaty ending the First World War.
  • View online exhibits created by the Library to commemorate various conflicts where our veterans have given their service. The following are examples:

Today in World War II History—June 11, 1940 & 1945

Italian Val Dora battalion of the 5th Alpini Regiment in action in the Colle della Pelouse during the Italian invasion of France in June 1940 (public domain from the L’illustrazione italiana, 19 July 1942, via Wikimedia Commons)

80 Years Ago—June 11, 1940: Gen. Maxime Weygand decides to declare Paris an open city, although civilians aren’t informed for another two days.

Italian troops invade France along the Riviera and in the Alps, but do not advance.

Italian planes bomb Malta in the first of 3340 Axis air raids to the island over the next three years.

Britain orders the internment of all male Italians ages 17-70 who have resided in Britain under 20 years, including those who fled Mussolini’s regime.

75 Years Ago—June 11, 1945: Czechoslovakia begins expulsion of 3 million ethnic Germans.

11 June 1945 - History

Documents on Germany, 1944-1959 : background documents on Germany, 1944-1959, and a chronology of political developments affecting Berlin, 1945-1956

Allied statement on control machinery in Germany, June 5, 1945, pp. 18-20 PDF (1.1 MB)

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How They Saw Us

Perhaps predictably, white representation of Japanese queer sexualities diverged significantly from how Japanese saw and depicted themselves.

Many scholars argue that whites created specific representations of Japanese to articulate and facilitate their gender and sexual desires.

Dora E. Amsden, “Dramatic Art in Japan,” Overland Monthly 36, no. 212 (1900): 101.
In 1900, essayist Dora Amsden lauded Japanese men for elegantly balancing masculinity and femininity in the dramatic arts. Amsden’s characterization of Japanese men as successfully embodying femininity reflected Americans’ views at the time of ideal manliness as a mixture of masculine and feminine. Click here to expand.

Florence Estella Taft, “Taka: A Story of the Yellow Man and a Wild Rose Which Would Not Be Potted,” Overland Monthly 78, no. 4 (October 1921): 16-19, 66, 74.
This short story by Florence Estella Taft may be the first instance when a Japanese man was depicted as a homicidal homosexual. It was published in the Overland Monthly in 1921, a time of growing apprehension in America around same-sex sexuality. Click here to expand.

Meeting of the Grand Jury of the City and County of San Francisco, 29 April 1918, San Francisco Public Library.
In 1918, police arrested a group of men for their involvement in a “fellatio ring” on Baker Street in San Francisco. In this transcript of the Grand Jury investigation, participants confessed to finding each other while admiring Japanese art in storefronts along Geary Street. For these men, Japan and the larger “Orient” were codes for same-sex intimacy. Click here to expand.

Karon Kehoe, lesbian author of the 1946 novel City in the Sun, worked in the Gila River incarceration camp and lived there with her partner, Monika Kehoe.

While City in the Sun focuses on a Japanese American family uprooted from their Pasadena home, it also briefly hints at homoerotic encounters.

Karon Kehoe, City in the Sun (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1946). Click here to expand.


11 June 1945 - History

1945 (Roman Numerals: MCMXLV) was the 45th year of the 20th century. 1945 was not a leap year, and the first day of the year was a Monday.

In 1945 World War II finally ended with the Soviets entering Germany from the East, and the Western Allies from the West. Adolf Hitler committed suicide. Japan surrendered after being blockaded, bombed, and hit by two atomic bombs, and attacked by the USSR.

Soviets liberate Auschwitz concentration camp.

US President, Franklin D. Roosevelt dies.

Adolf Hitler dies in his Berlin bunker.

Allies and Soviets defeat Germany.

United States tests first atomic bomb (Trinity Test), then later drops the first atomic bombs used in warfare on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, ending World War II.

Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal begins.

Indonesia proclaims independence from the Netherlands.

    Winning Team: Detroit Tigers

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See also

  • Chodakiewicz, Marek Jan. Between Nazis and Soviets: Occupation Politics in Poland, 1939–1947. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2004. ISBN 0739104845.
  • Lukowski, Jerzy & Hubert Zawadzki. A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press, 2001. ISBN 0521559170.
  • Topolski, Jerzy. An Outline History of Poland. Warsaw: Interpress Publishers, 1986.
  • Zamoyski, Adam. The Polish Way: A Thousand-Year History of the Poles and Their Culture. Hippocrene Books, 1993. ISBN 0781802008.

3 Japan Intended To Strike The US With Chemical Bombs

In the closing days of the war, Unit 731, Japan&rsquos feared biological and chemical warfare unit, planned a deadly chemical attack on the United States. Kamikaze bombers loaded with plague bombs would target a poorly defended but densely populated area. The chosen target was San Diego, California. The mission, called Operation Cherry Blossoms in the Night, would be carried out on September 22, 1945.

By this time the Japanese Navy was a spent force and had to rely on ingenuity to carry out the mission. To get the bomber within striking range it decided to use its latest creation&mdashthe submarine aircraft carrier. This was a huge submarine that carried a single airplane on its hangar. The sub could sail undetected close enough to launch the plane. The attack had no military value but was seen as a last-ditch attempt to dissuade the US from invading the Japanese mainland. The plan was never carried out, as the Americans beat them to it with the atomic bomb.

Second World War, 1939–45

On 3 September 1939 Prime Minister Robert Gordon Menzies announced the beginning of Australia's involvement in the Second World War on every national and commercial radio station in Australia.

Almost a million Australians, both men and women, served in the Second World War. They fought in campaigns against Germany and Italy in Europe, the Mediterranean and North Africa, as well as against Japan in south-east Asia and other parts of the Pacific. The Australian mainland came under direct attack for the first time, as Japanese aircraft bombed towns in north-west Australia and Japanese midget submarines attacked Sydney harbour.

On 7 May 1945 the German High Command authorised the signing of an unconditional surrender on all fronts: the war in Europe was over. The surrender was to take effect at midnight on 8–9 May 1945. On 14 August 1945 Japan accepted of the Allied demand for unconditional surrender. For Australia it meant that the Second World War was finally over.

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) participated in operations against Italy after its entry into the war in June 1940. A few Australians flew in the Battle of Britain in August and September, but the Australian army was not engaged in combat until 1941, when the 6th, 7th, and 9th Divisions joined Allied operations in the Mediterranean and North Africa.

Accession Number: P01103.005

At sea off Crete in the Mediterranean, 19 July 1940: Italian cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni under attack from HMAS Sydney near Cape Spada.

Following early successes against Italian forces, the Australians suffered defeat with the Allies at the hands of the Germans in Greece, Crete, and North Africa. In June and July 1941 Australians participated in the successful Allied invasion of Syria, a mandate of France and the Vichy government. Up to 14,000 Australians held out against repeated German attacks in the Libyan port of Tobruk, where they were besieged between April and August 1941. After being relieved at Tobruk, the 6th and 7th Divisions departed from the Mediterranean theatre for the war against Japan. The 9th Division remained to play an important role in the Allied victory at El Alamein in October 1942 before it also left for the Pacific. By the end of 1942 the only Australians remaining in the Mediterranean theatre were airmen serving either with 3 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) or in the Royal Air Force (RAF).

North Africa, 6 January 1941: Australian troops advance into Bardia.

Japan entered the war in December 1941 and swiftly achieved a series of victories, resulting in the occupation of most of south-east Asia and large areas of the Pacific by the end of March 1942. Singapore fell in February, with the loss of an entire Australian division. After the bombing of Darwin that same month, all RAN ships in the Mediterranean theatre, as well as the 6th and 7th Divisions, returned to defend Australia. In response to the heightened threat, the Australian government also expanded the army and air force and called for an overhaul of economic, domestic, and industrial policies to give the government special authority to mount a total war effort at home.

In March 1942, after the defeat of the Netherlands East Indies, Japan's southward advance began to lose strength, easing fears of an imminent invasion of Australia. Further relief came when the first AIF veterans of the Mediterranean campaigns began to come home, and when the United States assumed responsibility for the country's defence, providing reinforcements and equipment. The threat of invasion receded further as the Allies won a series of decisive battles: in the Coral Sea, at Midway, on Imita Ridge and the Kokoda Trail, and at Milne Bay and Buna.

Milne Bay, Papua, September 1942: a Bofors gun position manned by the 2/9th Light Anti-Aircraft Battery, Royal Australian Artillery, at Gili-Gili airfield. In the background a Kittyhawk is about to land.

Further Allied victories against the Japanese followed in 1943. Australian troops were mainly engaged in land battles in New Guinea, the defeat of the Japanese at Wau, and clearing Japanese soldiers from the Huon peninsula. This was Australia's largest and most complex offensive of the war and was not completed until April 1944. The Australian army also began a new series of campaigns in 1944 against isolated Japanese garrisons stretching from Borneo to Bougainville, involving more Australian troops than at any other time in the war. The first of these campaigns was fought on Bougainville and New Britain, and at Aitape, New Guinea. The final series of campaigns were fought in Borneo in 1945. How necessary these final campaigns were for Allied victory remains the subject of continuing debate. Australian troops were still fighting in Borneo when the war ended in August 1945.

While Australia's major effort from 1942 onwards was directed at defeating Japan, thousands of Australians continued to serve with the RAAF in Europe and the Middle East. Athough more Australian airmen fought against the Japanese, losses among those flying against Germany were far higher. Australians were particularly prominent in Bomber Command's offensive against occupied Europe. Some 3,500 Australians were killed in this campaign, making it the costliest of the war.

Over 30,000 Australian servicemen were taken prisoner in the Second World War and 39,000 gave their lives. Two-thirds of those taken prisoner were captured by the Japanese during their advance through south-east Asia in the first weeks of 1942. While those who became prisoners of the Germans had a strong chance of returning home at the end of the war, 36 per cent of prisoners of the Japanese died in captivity.

Singapore Straits Settlements, 19 September 1945: members of 2/18th Australian Infantry Battalion, prisoners of war of the Japanese, in Changi prison.

Nurses had gone overseas with the AIF in 1940. However, during the early years of the war women were generally unable to make a significant contribution to the war effort in any official capacity. Labour shortages forced the government to allow women to take a more active role in war work and, in February 1941, the RAAF received cabinet approval to establish the Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF). At the same time, the navy also began employing female telegraphists, a breakthrough that eventually led to the establishment of the Women's Royal Australian Naval Service (WRANS) in 1942. The Australian Women's Army Service (AWAS) was established in October 1941, with the aim of releasing men from certain military duties in base units in Australia for assignment with fighting units overseas. Outside the armed services, the Women's Land Army (WLA) was established to encourage women to work in rural industries. Other women in urban areas took up employment in industries, such as munitions production.

The Black Vault – Document Archive

Current Government Document Page Count Within The Black Vault: 2,932,922
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Watch the video: Fedor von Bock general #11