Day 118 May 17, 2011 - History

Day 118 May 17, 2011 - History


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10:30AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office


11:15AM THE PRESIDENT meets with His Majesty King Abdullah II of Jordan
Oval Office


12:05PM THE PRESIDENT and His Majesty King Abdullah II of Jordan deliver statements to the press
Oval Office


12:30PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet for lunch
Private Dining Room


2:50PM THE PRESIDENT hosts a White House reception in honor of Jewish American Heritage Month
East Room


4:30PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet with Secretary of Defense Gates
Oval Office
Closed Press10:30AM THE PRESIDENT receives the Presidential Daily Briefing
Oval Office

11:15AM THE PRESIDENT meets with His Majesty King Abdullah II of Jordan
Oval Office

12:05PM THE PRESIDENT and His Majesty King Abdullah II of Jordan deliver statements to the press
Oval Office


12:30PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet for lunch
Private Dining Room


2:50PM THE PRESIDENT hosts a White House reception in honor of Jewish American Heritage Month
East Room


4:30PM THE PRESIDENT and THE VICE PRESIDENT meet with Secretary of Defense Gates
Oval Office


The Overlooked Black History of Memorial Day

N owadays, Memorial Day honors veterans of all wars, but its roots are in America’s deadliest conflict, the Civil War. Approximately 620,000 soldiers died, about two-thirds from disease.

The work of honoring the dead began right away all over the country, and several American towns claim to be the birthplace of Memorial Day. Researchers have traced the earliest annual commemoration to women who laid flowers on soldiers’ graves in the Civil War hospital town of Columbus, Miss., in April 1866. But historians like the Pulitzer Prize winner David Blight have tried to raise awareness of freed slaves who decorated soldiers’ graves a year earlier, to make sure their story gets told too.

According to Blight’s 2001 book Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory, a commemoration organized by freed slaves and some white missionaries took place on May 1, 1865, in Charleston, S.C., at a former planters’ racetrack where Confederates held captured Union soldiers during the last year of the war. At least 257 prisoners died, many of disease, and were buried in unmarked graves, so black residents of Charleston decided to give them a proper burial.

In the approximately 10 days leading up to the event, roughly two dozen African American Charlestonians reorganized the graves into rows and built a 10-foot-tall white fence around them. An archway overhead spelled out “Martyrs of the Race Course” in black letters.

About 10,000 people, mostly black residents, participated in the May 1 tribute, according to coverage back then in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New York Tribune. Starting at 9 a.m., about 3,000 black schoolchildren paraded around the race track holding roses and singing the Union song “John Brown’s Body,” and were followed by adults representing aid societies for freed black men and women. Black pastors delivered sermons and led attendees in prayer and in the singing of spirituals, and there were picnics. James Redpath, the white director of freedman’s education in the region, organized about 30 speeches by Union officers, missionaries and black ministers. Participants sang patriotic songs like “America” and “We’ll Rally around the Flag” and “The Star-Spangled Banner.” In the afternoon, three white and black Union regiments marched around the graves and staged a drill.

The New York Tribune described the tribute as “a procession of friends and mourners as South Carolina and the United States never saw before.” The gravesites looked like a “one mass of flowers” and “the breeze wafted the sweet perfumes from them” and “tears of joy” were shed.

This tribute, “gave birth to an American tradition,” Blight wrote in Race and Reunion: “The war was over, and Memorial Day had been founded by African Americans in a ritual of remembrance and consecration.”

In 1996, Blight stumbled upon a New York Herald Tribune article detailing the tribute in a Harvard University archive &mdash but the origin story it told was not the Memorial Day history that many white people had wanted to tell, he argues.

About 50 years after the Civil War ended, someone at the United Daughters of the Confederacy asked the Ladies Memorial Association of Charleston to confirm that the May 1, 1865, tribute occurred, and received a reply from one S.C. Beckwith: “I regret that I was unable to gather any official information in answer to this.” Whether Beckwith actually knew about the tribute or not, Blight argues, the exchange illustrates “how white Charlestonians suppressed from memory this founding.” A 1937 book also incorrectly stated that James Redpath singlehandedly organized the tribute &mdash when in reality it was a group effort &mdash and that it took place on May 30, when it actually took place on May 1. That book also diminished the role of the African Americans involved by referring to them as “black hands which only knew that the dead they were honoring had raised them from a condition of servitude.”

The origin story that did stick involves an 1868 call from General John A. Logan, president of a Union Army veterans group, urging Americans to decorate the graves of the fallen with flowers on May 30 of that year. The ceremony that took place in Arlington National Cemetery that day has been considered the first official Memorial Day celebration. Memorial Day became a national holiday two decades later, in 1889, and it took a century before it was moved in 1968 to the last Monday of May, where it remains today. According to Blight, Hampton Park, named after Confederate General Wade Hampton, replaced the gravesite at the Martyrs of the Race Course, and the graves were reinterred in the 1880s at a national cemetery in Beaufort, S.C.

The fact that the freed slaves’ Memorial Day tribute is not as well remembered is emblematic of the struggle that would follow, as African Americans’ fight to be fully recognized for their contributions to American society continues to this day.


Day 118 May 17, 2011 - History

THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH--GOD'S JUDGMENT DAY

This is an absolute MUST read, all the way through. This post will show that the Rapture/Sudden Destruction, may be ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH, WHICH IS ONLY DAYS AWAY.

As we rapidly approach the 17th day of the 2nd month, on the Jewish civil calendar, the anticipation of possibly something very, very big happening is extremely exciting, yet also very sobering. God judged the whole world on the 17th day of the 2nd month in the form of the Great Flood. Is God getting ready to, once again, judge the whole world in the form of a Sudden Destruction/Rapture? Will the 17th day of the 2nd month be this day, as in the days of Noah? Or will this be our 40-day warning day, taking us to that other ominous Biblical day of the 24th of Kislev (Dec. 19 through Dec. 21, 2011)?

Is the 17th day of the 2nd month this year on 11/11/11, the day that most watchers are watching very carefully, or is it as late as 11/14/11, as the calendar suggests? Or is it one of the days between these days? The potential for something MAJOR happening in the next 7 days seems to be very high. The days from Nov. 8th through Nov. 14th, are literally filled with potential and should be considered MAJOR WATCH DAYS for all serious watchers. What an exciting time to be a Biblical watchman!

In fact, THREE of the most important days in the history of mankind, have already taken place ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH. Is God about ready to do it again? Will our Lord continue this pattern? Two of these extremely important dates in mankind's history have been days of Great Judgment, and the other date is also an extremely important date, and may also possibly have been a day of Great Judgment.

Are you ready for this? The judgment of the whole world in Noah's time, with the Great Flood, was not the first judgment of the whole world! It was the 2nd judgment of the whole world, and, believe it or not, it appears that the 1st judgment of the whole world was also ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH.

Where do we get this information from? It is written in the Book of Jubilees, which obviously is not part of the Bible. >From Jubilees 3:17--18, we read, "And after the completion of the seven years (that Adam and Eve were in the garden of Eden), which he had completed there, seven years exactly, (year 8) and in THE 2ND MONTH ON THE 17TH DAY (of the month), the serpent came and approached the woman, and the serpent said to the woman, 'Hath God commanded you, saying, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden?"

The Fall of Man immediately brought GOD'S JUDGMENT on all of mankind, the very day that Adam and Eve sinned. Man was banished from the garden. The Dispensation of Innocence immediately ended. Man's perfect world had ended. Man was forced to work. A curse was put on mankind. Man's days were now limited by his imminent death.

In other words, A GREAT JUDGMENT ON ALL OF MANKIND CAME ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH. It happened on this day of the year in the Garden of Eden, at the Fall of Man. This was God's 1st Judgment on all of mankind. It also happened on this very same day of the year in the days of Noah.

We read about it in Genesis 7:11--12. "In the 600th year of Noah's life, IN THE 2ND MONTH, THE 17TH DAY OF THE MONTH, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights."

For the 2nd time in man's history, A GREAT JUDGMENT ON ALL OF MANKIND CAME ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH. This was such a Great Judgment that only 8 people survived. Is God getting ready to execute a Great Judgment on the whole world? Will it be in the next 7 days? Will God's Great Judgment once again be ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH.

But wait. There is another extremely important event that also transpired on this very same day of the year. It was one of the most important events in the history of mankind. It also was possibly another Day of Great Judgment.

That event was the issuing of the very famous, and extremely important, Balfour Declaration, on November 2, 1917. This Declaration gave the Jews the legal right to once again finally return to their homeland of Israel. What an awesome turning point in history was this date! The amazing thing about the issuing of the Balfour Declaration was that it was ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH.

The Jewish people had been scattered all over the world since 70 A.D., in the Roman siege and massacre of the Jews in Jerusalem. They had remained a people in exile for many centuries, a people without a homeland. On Nov. 2, 1917, on the Jewish civil calendar, ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH, the long days of Jewish exile came to an end. They finally had the legal right to return to their homeland of Israel once again.

It was thirty years later, in November of 1947, that the United Nations, declared that Israel had the right to be a nation once again, which they did 6 months later. In one sense, the nation of Israel was born on Nov. 2, 1917. Yes, it was that important of a day. It was extremely important. And it happened ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH!

I wanted to send this post out last week, but I felt there was more that the Lord was trying to show me. Over this past weekend, I feel the Lord gave me a very important revelation concerning this possible 3rd worldwide judgment, once again ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH. Could this issuing of the Balfour Declaration, on the 17th day of the 2nd month, have been another day of Great Judgment? Could this day be a turning point in history? It certainly cannot be denied that it was a great, and miraculous, turning point for the Jews, and Israel.

I am suggesting to you that there is a possibility that this day of Nov. 2, 1917, ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH, could have been the beginning of God's Judgment on all of mankind, which will culminate 100 years later. One hundred Prophetic years (of 360 days) will end in 2015, the year of the Battle of Armageddon, and the year of our Lords' Return.

This year of 1917, the world was in World War 1, to be followed a few years later by World War 2. We stand today on the very brink of World War 3 and the Sudden Destruction/Rapture. These World Wars are a major part of God's Judgment on the whole world. Let's return to the days of Noah. "As in the days of Noah, so shall it also be in the days of the Son of man (Jesus)."

It is commonly accepted by many Bible scholars that Noah was given a 120-year warning to build the Ark (Gen. 6:3). 40 is a warning number, just as Jonah gave the people of Ninevah a 40-day warning, before God's judgment would fall on them. 40 + 40 + 40 = 120. The date of the forming of the 1st Jewish Congress in 1897 until the date of the start of the 1000-year reign of Christ on Dec. 6--7, 2015, comes out to EXACTLY 120 Prophetic years. This is just one of MANY proofs we have of the Final 7 Year timeline of the Fall of 2008 to the Fall of 2015.

There is another possible timeline that may be overlooked. I want to show you, from Scripture, what that might be. Genesis 5:32 says, "And Noah was 500 YEARS OLD: and Noah begat Shem, Ham, and Japheth." The next few verses tell us about the giants of the earth (the fallen angels) taking women, and reproducing. This is one of the major reasons for the Great Judgment of mankind. Verse 6 says, "And it repented the Lord that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart."

Gen. 7:11 tells us Noah was 600 YEARS OLD, when God's Judgment came in the form of the Great Flood. In other words, from the time that Noah started his preparation for entering the Ark, by having children who would enter with him, and from the time of the cause of God's Great Judgment, which was the fallen angels intermarrying with humans, was A PERIOD OF 100 YEARS UNTIL THE GREAT JUDGMENT CAME. From the time Noah was 500 years old, until he was 600 years old, mankind was steadily getting worse and worse during those 100 years, and God's wrath was being stored up. It took 100 years, before the culmination of God's wrath upon the whole world, in the form of the Great Flood.

"As in the days of Noah, so also shall it be in the days of the coming of the Son of man (Jesus)." The ending of God's wrath will be in 2015. Did it start 100 YEARS before 2015, which in Prophetic years is 1917. Did it start with World War 1 in 1917? Did it start the same day that God restored his chosen people to their homeland of Israel? Was Nov. 2, 1917, the issuing of the Balfour Declaration, the turning point in the closing days of mankind?

Was this day, Nov. 2, 1917, the issuing of the all-important and monumental Balfour Declaration, ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH, the turning point in God's Judgment? Did He temporarily end His judgment of the Jews for rejecting the Messiah, His Son Jesus, by beginning to restore the Jews to their homeland of Israel, and turn His Judgment upon the whole world, to culminate, 100 YEARS LATER IN 2015.

In the days of Noah, it took 100 YEARS FOR GOD'S JUDGMENT TO BE COMPLETE. Is God using the same 100-year pattern in these end-days? Is this 100 years of God's Judgment, from Nov. 2, 1917, to the year of the Battle of Armageddon, 2015? Does this once again make THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH A DAY OF GOD'S JUDGMENT.

1. GOD JUDGED THE WHOLE WORLD IN THE GARDEN OF EDEN, AT THE FALL OF MAN, WHEN ADAM AND EVE SINNED. IT APPARENTLY HAPPENED ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH.

2. GOD JUDGED THE WHOLE WORLD IN THE DAYS OF NOAH IN THE FORM OF A GREAT FLOOD. THE WHOLE PROCESS TOOK 100 YEARS. IT HAPPENED ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH.

3. GOD TEMPORARILY FINISHED HIS JUDGMENT ON ISRAEL, WITH THE ISSUING OF THE BALFOUR DECLARATION ON NOV. 2, 1917. GOD APPARENTLY BEGAN HIS JUDGMENT ON THE WHOLE WORLD ON THIS SAME DATE. IT SEEMS TO REPRESENT A TURNING POINT IN GOD'S JUDGMENT. IT WILL LAST 100 YEARS, AS IN THE DAYS OF NOAH. FOR THE THIRD TIME, GOD'S JUDGMENT TOOK PLACE ON THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH.

4. THAT BRINGS US TO TODAY, NOVEMBER OF 2011. WE ARE IN THE VERY LAST YEAR OF THE DAYS OF NOAH, BEFORE THE START OF THE GREAT TRIBULATION ON APR. 11, 2012. IS GOD NOW SAYING TO HIMSELF THE VERY SAME THING THAT HE SAID IN THE DAYS OF NOAH, "AND GOD SAW THAT THE WICKEDNESS OF MAN WAS GREAT IN THE EARTH, AND THAT EVERY IMAGINATION OF THE THOUGHTS OF HIS HEART WAS ONLY EVIL CONTINUALLY. AND IT REPENTED THE LORD THAT HE HAD MADE MAN ON THE EARTH, AND IT GRIEVED HIM IN HIS HEART." (GEN. 6:5--6)

ARE WE NOT IN THE DAYS JUST LIKE NOAH? ARE WE ABOUT TO ENTER NOAH'S TIMELINE? WILL GOD CONTINUE HIS PATTERN OF USING THE 17TH DAY OF THE 2ND MONTH AS THE DAY OF GREAT JUDGMENT. IN LESS THAN ONE WEEK, WE SHOULD KNOW THE ANSWER TO THAT QUESTION.

TWO VERSES LATER, GOD SAYS, IN GEN. 6:8, "BUT NOAH FOUND GRACE IN THE EYES OF THE LORD". VERY SOON NOW, GOD'S GREAT JUDGMENT IS GOING TO STRIKE THIS EARTH ONCE AGAIN IN THE FORM OF A SUDDEN DESTRUCTION AND THE GREAT TRIBULATION.
NOAH WAS GIVEN A WAY OF ESCAPE, BY THE ARK OF SAFETY.

WILL YOU BE ONE OF THE FEW WHOM GOD WILL SAY, "HE, OR SHE, FOUND GRACE IN THE EYES OF THE LORD. HE, OR SHE, WAS FOUND WORTHY IN THE EYES OF THE LORD (REFERRING TO LUKE 21). HE, OR SHE, WILL BE ALLOWED TO ESCAPE ALL OF IT. IT IS TIME TO SEEK GOD LIKE NEVER BEFORE. IT IS TIME TO REPENT OF ALL SIN IN YOUR LIFE.

JESUS PROMISED A WAY OF ESCAPE FROM ALL OF IT, IN LUKE 21. NOAH AND HIS FAMILY ESCAPED. LOT WAS PROVIDED A WAY OF ESCAPE ON THE SAME DAY AS THE DAY OF SUDDEN DESTRUCTION. THE RAPTURE IS OUR WAY OF ESCAPE. IT WILL HAPPEN AT THE TIME OF SUDDEN DESTRUCTION. IT COULD BE DAYS AWAY. IT COULD BE WEEKS AWAY (AROUND DEC. 20, 2011). BUT IT IS NEAR, VERY, VERY NEAR.

AS IN THE DAY OF LOT AND AS IN THE DAYS OF NOAH, SO SHALL IT ALSO BE IN THE DAYS OF THE COMING OF OUR LORD AND SAVIOUR, JESUS CHRIST. BE READY.


Day 118 May 17, 2011 - History

The five indicators that positively affect school success are:

  1. Effective Leaders
  2. Collaborative Teachers
  3. Involved Families
  4. Supportive Environments
  5. Ambitious Instruction

Research derived from the Five Essentials for School Success has proven that schools strong on at least three of the 5Essentials are 10 times more likely to improve student outcomes. This survey generates valuable data that districts can use to guide their ongoing efforts to improve schools and to offer students an excellent education. The survey is another improvement tool that allows districts and the state to share data as a means to inform parents and community members about the school’s learning environment. The Illinois 5Essentials Survey is administered online by UChicago Impact at the University of Chicago on behalf of the Illinois State Board of Education.

2020-2021 School Supply Lists are available here

How Much things cost in 1972
Yearly Inflation Rate USA 3.27%
Yearly Inflation Rate UK 6.4%
Year End Close Dow Jones Industrial Average 1020
Average Cost of new house $27,550.00
Average Income per year $11,800.00
Average Monthly Rent $165.00
Cost of a gallon of Gas 55 cents
Roxanne Ladies Swimsuit $30.00
Kodak Pocket
$28.00
Wrangler Jeans $12.00
ladies Timex Watch From $30.00
--Below are some Prices for UK guides in Pounds Sterling
Average House Price 7,374
Gallon of Petrol 0.35
A few More Examples
Ford Pinto $2,078
Barbie Doll Designer Collection From $2.85
Frisbee 94 cents
Ladies Stylish Over the Knee Boot $22.97
Ladies Deirdra Wig $20.00
Ladies Front Slit Dress $18.00
Classic Cook Center $474.95
White Contemporary Dinette Set $282.95
Hellmanns Mayonnaise $1.39
Fresh Strawberries Lb 31 cents
Ground Beef Lb 98 cents
Fruit Cocktail Can 20 cents

Split Level Home on Hill Top living room , dining room , 3 bedrooms , cathedral ceilings , 3 baths central air and double garage Iowa City
$32,400

1972 This year is marked as a black year in history due to the use of terrorism entering sport with the massacre of 11 Israel Athletes by Arab Gunman. Also this is the beginning of the biggest political scandal in modern times and the start of the Watergate Scandal. On the other side of the Atlantic a worsening of the problems between the IRA and the British government see wrongs from both sides and innocent lives are lost.


Here's the Real Reason We Associate 420 With Weed

B oth marijuana smokers and non-smokers recognize April 20 or 4/20 as a national holiday for cannabis culture, but few actually know how the date got chosen.

Some say �” is code among police officers for “marijuana smoking in progress.” Some note 4/20 is also Adolf Hitler’s birthday. And some go as far as to cite Bob Dylan’s song “Rainy Day Women #12 & 35” because 12 multiplied by 35 equals 420.

But, to put it bluntly, those rumors of the history behind how April 20, and 4/20, got associated with marijuana are false.

The most credible story traces 4/20 to Marin County, Calif. In 1971, five students at San Rafael High School would meet at 4:20 p.m. by the campus’ statue of chemist Louis Pasteur to partake. They chose that specific time because extracurricular activities had usually ended by then. This group &mdash Steve Capper, Dave Reddix, Jeffrey Noel, Larry Schwartz, and Mark Gravich &mdash became known as the “Waldos” because they met at a wall. They would say �” to each other as code for marijuana.

As Reddix told TIME in 2017, “We got tired of the Friday-night football scene with all of the jocks. We were the guys sitting under the stands smoking a doobie, wondering what we were doing there.”


Today in History: May 17

Afghan chief Sher Khan defeats Mongul Emperor Humayun at Kanauj.

Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi sees the belts on Jupiter's surface.

Louis XIV sends an expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declares war on France.

Merchants form the New York Stock Exchange at 70 Wall Street.

Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden.

Union General Ulysses Grant continues his push towards Vicksburg at the Battle of the Big Black River Bridge.

The first Kentucky Derby is run in Louisville.

Frederick Douglass is appointed recorder of deeds for Washington, D.C.

Germany occupies Brussels, Belgium and begins the invasion of France.

The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rules for school integration in Brown v. Board of Education.

The Senate Watergate Committee begins its hearings.

In the Persian Gulf the American guided missile frigate USS Stark is struck by 2 Exocet missiles fired by an Iraqi aircraft only one detonates, but 37 sailors are killed and 21 are wounded. Whether the launch was deliberate or a mistake is still debated.


Inference of human population history from individual whole-genome sequences

The history of human population size is important for understanding human evolution. Various studies have found evidence for a founder event (bottleneck) in East Asian and European populations, associated with the human dispersal out-of-Africa event around 60 thousand years (kyr) ago. However, these studies have had to assume simplified demographic models with few parameters, and they do not provide a precise date for the start and stop times of the bottleneck. Here, with fewer assumptions on population size changes, we present a more detailed history of human population sizes between approximately ten thousand and a million years ago, using the pairwise sequentially Markovian coalescent model applied to the complete diploid genome sequences of a Chinese male (YH), a Korean male (SJK), three European individuals (J. C. Venter, NA12891 and NA12878 (ref. 9)) and two Yoruba males (NA18507 (ref. 10) and NA19239). We infer that European and Chinese populations had very similar population-size histories before 10-20 kyr ago. Both populations experienced a severe bottleneck 10-60 kyr ago, whereas African populations experienced a milder bottleneck from which they recovered earlier. All three populations have an elevated effective population size between 60 and 250 kyr ago, possibly due to population substructure. We also infer that the differentiation of genetically modern humans may have started as early as 100-120 kyr ago, but considerable genetic exchanges may still have occurred until 20-40 kyr ago.

Figures

Figure 1. Illustration of the PSMC model…

Figure 1. Illustration of the PSMC model and its application to simulated data


Historian Explains The Origin Of "Taps"

The languid, melancholy sound of a bugle call is a fixture at military funerals. But it wasn't always that way. The song taps used to signal 'lights out' for soldiers to go to sleep. Taps historian Jari Villanueva, a former ceremonial bugler at Arlington National Cemetery, discusses the evolution of the song and the meaning of Memorial Day.

ALLISON KEYES, host: I'm Allison Keyes and this is TELL ME MORE from NPR News. Michel Martin is away.

Coming up, the weekly Can I Just Tell You commentary. That's in a bit.

But, first, the bugle call played at military funerals is ingrained in American culture as the music of mourning, but it wasn't always that way. "Taps" started out as a military signal for soldiers to turn out the lights and go to bed.

My next guest is a "Taps" historian and a retired trumpeter for the United States Air Force Band. With us now in the studio is Jari Villanueva, who played "Taps" at military funerals at Arlington Cemetery for 23 years. He's now director of the Maryland National Honor Guard. Thanks for joining us.

JARI VILLANUEVA: Thank you for having me. It's my honor to do over 300 military funerals a month for our Maryland veterans.

KEYES: Wow. We're going to talk a bit about the history of "Taps." But, first, would you honor us with a performance?

VILLANUEVA: Sure. This is a bugle call that was used during the Civil War. It's called "Extinguish Lights" and it's found in the early manuals. And it was the call prior to the Civil War that would tell soldiers to put out the lights and go to sleep.

KEYES: So that's the call that inspired "Taps" in the first place.

VILLANUEVA: Sort of. It's the call that was replaced by "Taps."

VILLANUEVA: And the call that I just played came from the French. It was written as early as 1809. And interestingly enough, it was Napoleon's favorite bugle call.

VILLANUEVA: Yes. And it was the call that would be sounded at, like I said, at the end of the day to tell the soldiers to put out the lights, extinguish the lights and go to sleep.

KEYES: But the gentleman that eventually composed "Taps" had an issue with that music, didn't he?

VILLANUEVA: Yes. General Daniel Butterfield thought that that particular call was just a little too formal-sounding to end the day. So he decided that he would revise that bugle call.

KEYES: Can you play us "Taps" as we know it now?

VILLANUEVA: Yes, here is "Taps." There's 24 notes.

KEYES: That is such a beautiful song. I always want to cry every time I hear it. And you're playing it on a beautiful instrument. Tell us about it.

VILLANUEVA: Yes, I'm playing it on a vintage instrument that comes from the 1860s. It's actually called a clarion. And it's of course imported from France. It's made out of copper, has a brass garland out of it that surrounds the bell and it's an instrument that was used by the military buglers of the Civil War.

Now the tune that, of course that I just played, "Taps," was not so much composed by General Daniel Butterfield, but actually a revision of an earlier bugle call that went out of use just prior to the Civil War. He got his brigade bugler, a 22-year-old by the name of Oliver Wilcox Norton, to help him revise that earlier bugle call into those 24 notes that we know today as "Taps."

KEYES: All right. If you're just joining us, I'm Allison Keyes and you're listening to TELL ME MORE from NPR News. We are joined in the studio today, by Jari Villanueva, "Taps" bugler and historian. How did you go from doing the military memorial service work to honoring fallen military personnel?

VILLANUEVA: Well, it all started, of course, with my experience in the Air Force band. I entered the Air Force in 1985 as a trumpeter in the Ceremonial Brass, which is the ceremonial unit of the United States Air Force band. And working day in and day out with the Honor Guard, I became quite familiar with military funeral protocols and also protocols for any type of military ceremonies. And this, of course, led to my experience not only playing military funerals at Arlington, but also doing ceremonies at the White House, arrival ceremonies at Andrews Air Force Base, and before I retired, being part of the funeral services for former presidents Ronald Reagan and also former president Gerald Ford.

KEYES: That's a big responsibility. But I've got to ask you, this seems like it would be really emotional work. How do you handle it?

VILLANUEVA: It certainly is emotional because when you sound "Taps" at a military funeral, you're representing the country in - by saying farewell to someone who has served. And if you decide that you want to become emotional with every single performance, you won't last more than about a month or so. So we tend to step back a little bit and focus in on the mission at hand - sounding "Taps" the best that we can do at that military funeral. And not only with the emotional part, but as a ceremonial trumpeter at Arlington, you also have to deal with the weather. Extreme heat, extreme cold, rain, snow - it all factors into your performance. But you want to make sure that every time that you sound "Taps," it's for the family, and you want to make it perfect.

KEYES: I understand that you started out as a musician first.

VILLANUEVA: Yes, I actually started playing when I was in junior high school, then to high school and got a scholarship to Peabody Conservatory, where I got my degree in music education. Actually went out and taught for a few years, then went to Kent State University in Kent, Ohio for my Masters in trumpet performance, then came back and enlisted in the Air Force, was accepted into the Air Force band and had a great 23 years. It was a wonderful time for me to be able to perform for the military, doing something that I absolutely love to do, performing on the trumpet and the bugle.

KEYES: I have to say, "Taps" is really part of our national culture now. You hear it in movies, it's played in some summer camps. How did it become such a part of our culture?

VILLANUEVA: It's become part of our culture, of course, because it's heard so many times. There's not a single bugle call in the world that you can identify after hearing the first three notes. And of course, of anyone who's been to summer camp or has served in the military, they'll know that that call is sounded every evening as that final call for lights out. And, of course, the many words that were put to that particular song helped ingrain the song itself into our national conscience.

KEYES: And that they're sometimes performed by choruses as well. Although I think most people, they're most familiar with just hearing that single horn.

VILLANUEVA: Yes. "Taps" is performed many different ways. And in fact, as we look forward to the 150th anniversary of "Taps," the organization I belong with, which is called, appropriately enough, TAPS 150, is getting ready to release a CD in which you have many versions of "Taps," including some vocal renditions. There are at least four vocal renditions that will be on the CD. We have some performances of "Taps" by some noted trumpet players who have given of their time and talents to make this CD into a really wonderful little bit of history of how "Taps" came about.

KEYES: And the first words lyric that begins with day is done, were they?

VILLANUEVA: No. Actually the first words were very inspiring. Go to sleep. Go to sleep. Go to sleep.

VILLANUEVA: Put out the lights. Put out the lights. Put out the lights.

KEYES: Tell us the rest of those lyrics that everyone knows a bit.

VILLANUEVA: Well, of course, the most familiar one is day is done, gone the sun.

UNIDENTIFIED PEOPLE: (Singing) Day is done, gone the sun.

VILLANUEVA: From the lakes, from the hills, from the sky.

PEOPLE: (Singing) From the lake, from the hills, from the sky.

VILLANUEVA: All is well, safely rest, God is nigh.

PEOPLE: (Singing) All is well, safely rest, God is nigh.

VILLANUEVA: And that's probably, those sets of lyrics are probably the most familiar ones that we know. And it's very interesting that even though "Taps" is an official bugle call of the military, there are no official lyrics because there are many other lyrics that go with it.

KEYES: Interesting. I wonder if you could tell us how it went from an everyday signal to a funeral rite.

VILLANUEVA: Well, shortly after the song was composed or revised back in 1862, there was a funeral in one of the artillery companies. And the captain in charge, whose name was John Tidball, decided that he did not want to fire the customary three volleys over the grave, since he was afraid that firing those three customary volleys might tell the enemy that we're going to start fighting again. He just simply told his bugler to sound "Taps." So that became the first time it was associated with a military funeral. After the Civil War, both "Taps" and the firing of the three volleys became part of our military funerals as we know it today. And it's become a custom now that you will hear "Taps" on Memorial Day as well as Veterans Day.

KEYES: I want to ask, though, there must be military families that can't afford to have an actual bugler come to their service. What are their options?

VILLANUEVA: There are a couple options. Well, in Maryland, I'm proud to say that the Maryland National Guard will provide a live bugler for any military funeral upon request. However, if you cannot find a live bugler through the military, there are a couple of different options. There's a wonderful organization called Bugles Across America. If you go onto their website you can find a bugler in your area just by a few clicks of the mouse. And then, of course, the last resort that we would have would be a digital or the fake bugle. And what it is, it's a horn that looks like mine except that it has an insert that you put into the bell. And the insert is actually a small MP3 player. When it comes time for "Taps," the person holding the horn - I won't say he's not - he's not playing it.

VILLANUEVA: He will actually flip a button and then hold the horn up and then out of the bell comes the sound of "Taps." And it's a wonderful recording. And it's appropriate to use this device when you can't find a bugler.

KEYES: Let me just ask you. On Memorial Day, a lot of people are barbecuing or going to the beach or whatever. But obviously it's got a much more serious meaning. I wonder if you could share with us what you would like for people to keep in mind on Memorial Day.

VILLANUEVA: On Memorial Day, it's the day that we actually go and visit the graves of those who have served our country. They're the ones that, who gave everything so that we can enjoy those things that we're going to enjoy over the weekend - going out visiting with the family, going to the beach and having cookouts and stuff. So it's important that over the weekend at some time that we take a few minutes and reflect on those great things.

Jari Villanueva is a "Taps" historian and former ceremonial bugler at Arlington National Cemetery. He now works as a director for the Maryland National Guard Honor Guard, and joined us here in the studio in Washington, D.C. to tell us some of the history of "Taps" and to play for us.

KEYES: Mr. Villanueva, thanks so much for coming in.

VILLANUEVA: Thank you very much.

KEYES: And we're going to use some music from your upcoming "Taps 150" CD to play us out. Here's "Taps for a Fallen Brave."

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "TAPS FOR A FALLEN BRAVE")

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A new paper, published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offers a possible answer: The impact changed the chemical content of the ocean, rendering seawater more acidic and inhospitable to the tiny plankton that form the base of the marine food chain. Combined with the other effects of the asteroid—darkened skies and a snap of global cooling—this ecologic disruption doomed much of life on Earth.

The finding may be satisfying for asteroid fans, but it is an ominous one. Ocean acidification, a hallmark of the planet’s previous mass extinctions, is happening again today.

How does an asteroid prompt an extinction? It chooses the right location. The Yucatán Peninsula was an excellent one, says Pincelli Hull, an author of the paper and a geology professor at Yale. The peninsula is essentially an “old buried reef,” she told me, an accumulation of dead coral and other sea life that is now more than a mile thick. When the asteroid hit, untold megatons of that old organic material—rich in nitrogen and sulfur—instantly became dust and shot up into the atmosphere.

Soon it began to fall back down, now as nitric oxide and sulfuric acid. “It was raining brimstone and acid from the sky,” Hull said. The air would have reeked of acrid smog and burnt matches. The acid accumulated in the oceans, wearing away the shells of the small, delicate plankton that serve as the basis of the marine food chain. Within a few centuries of the impact, ocean acidity had jumped by at least 0.3 pH units.

This spike in ocean acidification may have lasted for less than 1,000 years. But even that pulse “was long enough to kill off entire ecosystems for sure,” Hull said. Ocean acidification also likely worsened other sweeping environmental changes wrought by the impact, such as the years-long darkness caused by orbiting debris and ash from the global wildfires.

With this new finding, it now appears that all three of the worst mass extinctions in Earth’s history featured huge spasms of ocean acidification. They include the K-T extinction the End-Triassic Extinction, when volcanoes in New Jersey killed 75 percent of all species and the dread End-Permian Event, the worst extinction in the history of the planet, which killed roughly 85 percent of all species and nearly sterilized the oceans. Scientists call that event “the Great Dying.”

And that pattern is worrying, because the oceans are acidifying again today. Carbon dioxide—the same air pollutant that causes global warming—also dissolves in the oceans and increases the acidity of seawater. Since the late 1980s, the planet’s oceans have become about 0.02 pH units more acidic every decade, according to a report last month from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. More than a fifth of all modern carbon pollution has already dissolved into the oceans, the report also found.

The researchers collected more than 7,000 of these tiny fossils—each half the size of a grain of sand—from Geulhemmerberg Cave in the Netherlands, the only place on Earth that contains fossils from the oceans in the decades and centuries after the K-T impact. (Michael J. Henehan / PNAS)

Modern acidification is not yet at the same magnitude as the K-T pulse. It’s “moving toward that scale, but it’s not quite there yet,” Hull said. What unites our world and the K-T period, she said, is that a number of environmental catastrophes can overlap with ocean acidification to produce a major upheaval.

“You should think of [ocean acidification] as the straw that broke the camel’s back” during the K-T extinction, she said. “It’s dark, it’s really cold after the impact—and the ocean has acidified.”

Chris Lowery, who studies the oceans of the past at the University of Texas at Austin, told me that the paper represents “a big leap” in our understanding of the extinction. “We’ve known for a while that there was some amount of ocean acidification due to the Chicxulub impact, but this is the first time that the acidification has actually been quantified,” he said in an email, referring to the town in the Yucatán Peninsula for which the impact crater is named.

While paleontologists have long hypothesized about how an asteroid impact could produce the K-T extinction, this is some of the first evidence that supports those mechanisms, he added. And while the asteroid struck Mexico, the crucial evidence for this study came from a cave in the Netherlands that preserves fossils from the oceans in the decades or centuries immediately after the impact. Michael Henehan, a scientist who was then a postdoc in Hull’s lab, collected more than 7,000 tiny plankton fossils from the cave—each half the size of a grain of sand—and crushed them to analyze their chemical signatures.

“It was a herculean effort to get these measurements,” Hull said. “There’s just one place in the world where we think these fossils preserved.” (Henehan is now a professor at the German Research Centre for Geosciences.)

Two years ago, another study found the first geological evidence of global cooling, another proposed mechanism, following the impact.

Notably, the study’s findings do not support the idea that enormous eruptions from volcanoes in modern-day India, called the Deccan Traps, prompted the surge in ocean acidification and resulting mass extinction. That hypothesis has a small number of ardent advocates, among them Gerta Keller, a geologist at Princeton who was the subject of a profile in this magazine last year.

But “this study pretty definitively shows that those eruptions had no effect on ocean chemistry,” Lowery said. In an email, Keller disputed the paper’s dating of the impact, arguing the asteroid actually struck Earth “over 100,000 years” prior to the extinction’s start.


Watch the video: Ο π. Νικ. Λουδοβίκος για Ανθρωπολογία - Θεολογία