March 4, 2015 Day 44 of the Seventh Year - History

March 4, 2015 Day 44 of the Seventh Year - History


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President Barack Obama meets with Vice President Joe Biden and advisors in the Oval Office, March 4, 2015.


2:30PM THE PRESIDENT signs H.R. 240 – Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2015
Oval Office


Important Events From This day in History March 4th

2nd John Adams 1797 to 1801
3rd Thomas Jefferson 1801 to 1809
4th James Madison 1809 to 1817
5th James Monroe 1817 to 1825
6th John Quincy Adams 1825 to 1829
7th Andrew Jackson 1829 to 1837
8th Martin Van Buren 1837 to 1841
9th William Henry Harrison 1841 to April 4, 1841 ( Died in Office )
11th James K. Polk 1845 to 1849
12th Zachary Taylor 1849 to July 9th 1850 ( Died in Office )
14th Franklin Pierce 1853 to 1857
15th James Buchanan 1857 to 1861
16th Abraham Lincoln 1861 to April 15th 1865 ( Assassinated )
18th Ulysses S. Grant 1869 to 1877
19th Rutherford B. Hayes 1877 to 1881
20th James A. Garfield 1881 to September 19th 1881 ( Assassinated )
22nd Grover Cleveland 1885 to 1889
23rd Benjamin Harrison 1889 to 1893
24th Grover Cleveland 1893 to 1897
25th William McKinley 1897 to September 14th 1901 ( Assassinated )
27th William Howard Taft 1909 to 1913
28th Woodrow Wilson 1913 to 1921
29th Warren G. Harding 1921 to August 2nd 1923 ( Died in Office )
31st Herbert Hoover 1929 to 1933
32nd Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933 to April 12th 1945 ( Died In Office )
The following were not inaugurated on March 4th for differing reasons including natural death, assassinations etc of previous president causing change in date

1st George Washington April 30th 1789 to 1797
10th John Tyler April 4th 1841 to 1845
13th Millard Fillmore July 9th 1850 to 1853
17th Andrew Johnson April 15th 1865 to 1869
21st Chester A. Arthur September 19th 1881 to 1885
26th Theodore Roosevelt September 14th 1901 to 1909
30th Calvin Coolidge August 2nd 1923 to 1929
33rd Harry S. Truman April 12th 1945 to January 20th 1953
In 1953 the date for Presidential Inaugurations was changed to January 20th. Check January 20th for later Presidential Inaugurations.


Why do total lunar eclipses often appear red?

A lunar eclipse occurs when the earth’s shadow (the umbra) falls on the moon. If the earth’s shadow completely covers the moon, it is a total eclipse. But a partial lunar eclipse happens if the earth’s umbra only partially covers the moon. Because the earth has an atmosphere that bends light around its edge, the earth’s umbra is not completely dark. So, the totally eclipsed moon will reflect the color of the light contained in the earth’s shadow. The earth’s atmosphere scatters out shorter-wavelength light (green through violet) leaving mostly longer-wavelength light (red, orange, and yellow) in the earth’s umbra. This is why sunsets and sunrises generally are red, and why most lunar eclipses are red.

However, a wide range of color and brightness can be found in lunar eclipses. This is based on atmospheric conditions at the time including dust and humidity levels. While the color of some total lunar eclipses could be compared to blood, others are more orange, similar to a pumpkin. Still other eclipses look yellow, and some are very dark—virtually black. One of the most unusual total lunar eclipses was the very long one on July 6, 1982. Half of the earth’s umbra was as dark as coal, but the other half was rather bright and had a peach-like color. No one alive could remember such an unusual-looking lunar eclipse, nor were there any similar reports of past eclipses. In short, most lunar eclipses don’t appear blood-like, so it is a bit presumptuous to assume that any particular future eclipse—or, in this case, four eclipses—must of necessity be “blood moons.”


March Used to Mark the New Year

Aside from the implications of — spoiler alert — Caesar's untimely doom, which we'll get into in just a bit, the Ides of March was significant to ancient Romans for a variety of reasons. Multiple holidays were celebrated in March, but to understand why, it’s important to remember that the ancient world's calendars were quite different from the ones we use today.

For much of ancient history, March was considered the first month of the new year — until January took the lead around 153 BCE. Back in 2000 BCE, however, ancient Mesopotamians kicked off each year in March because it was around the time that a brand new planting cycle began after pausing for winter. Other ancient cultures followed suit, which is why many ancient new year festivals took place in March, even after it was eventually demoted to the third month of the year.

Calendars as we know them today were still undergoing a lot of revisions — especially during Julius Caesar's time. The famed Roman statesman oversaw many of those changes himself, eventually designing the Julian calendar, which was named for him and enjoyed widespread use. For help, Caesar turned to an astronomer named Sosigenes, who advised him that it was time to do away with the lunar cycle and instead base the calendar on the solar year.

This was the route the ancient Egyptians had taken, and it proved to work out well by designating that each year would consist of 365 1/4 days. After a bit of editing and reconfiguring, Caesar's calendar was implemented. It ushered in the first time that the new year was officially celebrated on January 1st in 45 BCE.


March 4, 2015 Day 44 of the Seventh Year - History

68 comments

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This comment has been removed by the author.

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Million Man March: Black History Photo Of The Day (PHOTO)

A picture is certainly worth a thousand words. What better way to celebrate Black History Month than by taking a moment to acknowledge the snapshots of time that represent the struggle and triumph of African-Americans through the years?

As part of our Black History Month coverage, we will be featuring one photo a day that honors years of groundbreaking achievements within the black community. These photos bring tears to our eyes, instill pride in our hearts and motivate us to carry on the legacy of strength and perseverance.

Today's photo was taken on October 16, 1995 at the Million Man March in Washington, D.C. The march, which was organized as a political demonstration bringing together African American men from around the country to the nation's capital, included nearly 1.1 million participants, ranking it among the largest gathering of its kind in American history.

The event was conceptualized by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan and former NAACP executive director Benjamin F. Chavis Jr., and aimed to encourage "unity, atonement and brotherhood." While addressing the crowd, Kurt Schmoke, the former mayor of Baltimore, echoed those themes in his speech.

“Let our choices be for life, for protecting our women, our children, keeping our brothers free of drugs, free of crime,” he said.

The Million Man March is hailed as one of modern events in the Civil Rights Movement.

Take a look at the photo and share your thoughts in the comments section below.


An Oral History of the Day Everything Changed

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories.

In the end, as history will record, the story that would have been the biggest news on Wednesday, March 11—the story that in normal times might have been the biggest headline of the month—will hardly register in America’s memory: That morning, at 11:06 am, a judge sentenced Hollywood super-producer turned super-predator Harvey Weinstein to 23 years in prison on sexual assault charges.

Yet within 12 hours, the staggering fact that Weinstein—the force behind an entire generation of movie classics from Shakespeare in Love to Pulp Fiction—might very well spend the rest of his life in prison turned out not only not to be the biggest story of the day, it wasn’t even the biggest Hollywood story of the day.

Instead, Wednesday, March 11, the 71st day of 2020, proved to be unlike any other in American history—the pivot point on which weeks of winter unease about the looming novel coronavirus turned in a matter of hours into a sudden, wrenching, nation-altering halt to daily life and routine. Just a day earlier, Americans across much of the country were still going into the office, meeting friends for drinks, and shaking hands in meetings. That morning, the number of coronavirus cases in the US crossed the 1,000 mark, up 10-fold from the prior week. Only 29 Americans had died.

But on that Wednesday, the World Health Organization, which had only begun referring to the virus as Covid-19 a month earlier, declared the disease a global pandemic. Every hour seemed to bring major new developments: On Wall Street, after days of huge up-and-down gyrations, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 1,465 points and officially entered bear territory Capitol Hill faced its first confirmed Covid-19 case the NCAA announced it would play its basketball tournament without fans and then, in rapid-fire succession that evening, President Trump gave an Oval Office address, announcing a travel ban from Europe, the NBA suspended its season after player Rudy Gobert tested positive for the virus, and Tom Hanks and his wife, Rita, posted on Instagram that they too had been diagnosed while in Australia and were recuperating.

By Thursday, the national landscape had been undeniably altered, and Americans were panic-buying toilet paper. A whole new vocabulary—WFH, PPE, flattening the curve, social distancing, self-isolation, Zoom-bombing, and quarantinis—loomed ahead. Epochal events that had occurred just weeks earlier, from the Australian wildfires to President Trump’s impeachment trial to the drama of the Democratic primary, would seem instead to have occurred years ago.

Within a month, thousands would be killed by the virus, as hospitals from New York to Detroit to New Orleans were overwhelmed, and more than 100,000 had been sickened. The economy would slide into a virus-induced coma, and some 17.7 million Americans would lose their jobs over the next month—a number larger than the populations of all but four states. Not even Harvey Weinstein would escape the drama: He tested positive for the virus on March 23.

To capture the moment that everything in American life changed—launching us into an uncertain future of unknown duration—WIRED collected the stories and memories of more than 30 people who lived March 11’s drama first-hand, from the trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange to a basketball arena in Dallas to Capitol Hill to the airports of Europe. This oral history of a day that America will never forget has been compiled from contemporaneous quotes, social media posts, and original interviews. Quotes have been edited and condensed for clarity. All times listed are for US Eastern Daylight Time, unless otherwise noted.

Tom Frieden, former director of the Centers for Disease Control (2009-2017): By the end of January, I was saying this is either going to be bad or it’s going to be very, very bad. All through February, we were all trying to figure out how bad is this going to be?

Peter Tuchman, stock trader, Quattro Securities: We’ve been on a wild tear for a year. The market has been headline-driven, news-driven, Trump-driven, tweet-driven with moves that are quite aggressive. On February 12 the Dow hit a record high of 29,551. The S&P was at a record high. We had a so-called deal in place with China. All the ducks had been lining themselves up for a massive market rally. The world had not really gauged the reality of the virus yet.

Mark Cuban, owner, Dallas Mavericks: I had followed all the data that was being distributed. Initially it was like, “OK, it’s flu-like, it can’t be too bad.” Then it was, “Oh, we don’t have a vaccine. And it’s not as much like the flu as it may be like SARS.” And “Oh, it hasn’t taken care of itself in Wuhan or in China.” My thought process was up and down. One day it was, “Oh, shit, this is a real problem.” Next day, “Well, maybe it’s not as bad as I thought.” The information seemed to change daily in terms of how people were describing not just the severity of it, but also the intensity and the spreadability of it.

Carolyn Maloney, US Representative, Democrat, New York’s 12th district chair, House Committee on Oversight and Reform: There were all kinds of conflicting reports on it. Many people up to that point had been treating it as something that was like a mild flu. “It will go away by the summer. It’s not that big a problem.”

Dean Phillips, US Representative, Democrat, Minnesota’s third district: In the first few days of March, a number of us were invited to the White House from the Problem Solvers caucus to meet with Vice President Pence and Dr. Deborah Birx. I left the meeting convinced that there was a graphic disconnect between the risks the virus presented to the country and the administration’s either cognition or belief in the science. There was this expression that it wasn’t a great risk to Americans. A couple of days later we had the first Members of Congress briefing with a number of the agency leads. It was poorly organized, poorly coordinated. You could tell the agencies were not working well together.

Elise Stefanik, US Representative, Republican, New York’s 21st district: The first real wake-up call to Capitol Hill was the American Israel Public Affairs Committee convention. When the news broke on March 4 that individuals at an AIPAC conference had self-quarantined after coming into contact with someone who tested positive, we started asking very specific questions, both from AIPAC and the broader Capitol Hill complex, as to potential exposure. It was so difficult to get any responses.

Douglas Brinkley, presidential historian: I live in Austin, Texas, and they canceled South by Southwest on Friday, March 6—that’s like the billion-dollar engine of the city—and when they canceled, people in Austin were wondering whether the organizers were being way too cautious.

Scott Van Pelt, anchor, ESPN’s SportsCenter: Things were changing really quickly. I was at Disney the weekend before, and I said to my wife, “Are we idiots to go here?” My wife pooh-poohed it. Some of the narratives out there were that it was not that big a deal.

Dan Pfeiffer, cohost, Pod Save America, former White House communications director for President Obama: I was on the third week of my book tour for Un-Trumping America. I was supposed to be on the road for the next 10 days in a different city every day. On Sunday the 8th, before I left, my wife and I had this long conversation, like, “What do we do about the coronavirus?” All my events were going forward. No one had even raised the prospect of changing them.

Ryan Ruocco, play-by-play broadcaster, ESPN: In the first couple of weeks of March, I was traveling a ton and consciously booking flights at times when I could still get some semblance of sleep. That wouldn’t be my normal policy, but I was trying to make sure I was not letting my immune system down, knowing what was starting to fester with Covid-19. I’d been following it closely in Italy, because I was due to get married in June in Italy. That’s now been postponed till June 2021, unfortunately.

Claudia Sahm, director of macroeconomic policy, Washington Center for Equitable Growth: When Italy shut down its northern regions that weekend—that was March 8—I was like, “Oh, we’re in for it.” We’re not South Korea. We’re a lot more like Italy. All this forecasting is playing out in my head, but it’s still early. I wasn’t sure if I was overreacting.

Peter Tuz, president, Chase Investment Counsel Corp.: That Friday and Saturday, Russia and Saudi Arabia decided to try to drive US shale oil producers out of business and make life very painful for them. That helped trigger the big sell-off on Monday—the stock market was down 2,000 points, the largest point plunge for the Dow Jones Industrial Average ever. Our thought was, “This is going to be painful for the energy sector,” but it wasn’t clear that it was going to spill over to the larger economy.

Dan Pfeiffer: I get to San Francisco airport Monday the 9th, and it was totally packed, like it normally would be. I’m like, “OK, this seems like a thing not to be totally worried about yet.” I do an event in Milwaukee on Monday night, totally normal crowd. Everything you’d expect. The bookstore brought Purell, and we put some rules in about not doing photos, to minimize touching, but that was it. I woke up the next morning and flew to Minnesota. My wife, who had been talking about the coronavirus for a very long time now, called and said, “You really should cancel the rest of your events.” I called my publisher, and at first they thought I was being a little crazy and thought the venues would react pretty negatively. Within an hour, they’d had a bunch of other authors and venues cancel. We made the decision to go through with the Tuesday night event and then we pulled down everything for the rest of trip.

Elise Stefanik: We were one of the first Capitol Hill offices to transition to teleworking. Monday, March 9, we were fully teleworked. We were the first door in our hallway to put up a sign that said we will be limiting excess meetings and taking public health cautions and transferring to telework. At this point there was not as much of a concern in the media and the general public. There was a real generational divide of younger members wanting to adjust the operations on Capitol Hill versus some of the older members who were adamant that business continue as usual.

Patrick Hester, Stefanik’s chief of staff: We thought that there were probably already cases that weren’t being reported. So from our perspective, it was already on Capitol Hill and we wanted to make sure our staff got off the Hill as quickly as possible, just for their own health and so that we didn’t accidentally spread it on to constituents who were coming to visit.

Yamiche Alcindor, White House correspondent, PBS NewsHour: The president had been downplaying this virus. You had that moment Monday night, the 9th, when Tucker Carlson was talking to his viewers, telling them, “People you trust—people you probably voted for—have spent weeks minimizing what is clearly a very serious problem.” This was one of the president’s favorite Fox News hosts speaking, it seemed, to the president himself.

Gabriella Orr, White House reporter, Politico: Tucker Carlson is somebody who has a fairly close relationship with Trump. He used that access to convey to him that there was a dire need for a more serious posture from this administration—that somebody needed to do something, and they needed to do it quickly.

Philip Rucker, White House bureau chief, Washington Post: For me and my colleagues at the Post, we’d already started working from home. Tuesday, the 10th, was the first day the newsroom was closed. It was unsettling. The president had been really dismissing the threat and had not acknowledged the magnitude of the crisis.

Liz Cheney, US Representative, Republican, Wyoming’s at-large district, and chair, House Republican Conference: Since January I had been talking to physicians, including some who served in the White House medical unit when my dad as vice president. The last time the House Republican Conference met in person was on March 10, and our guest that day was former Food and Drug Administration head Scott Gottlieb. That was one of the first times I remember hearing him explaining the whole concept of “this is what ɿlatten the curve' means.” And “This is why flatten the curve matters” and talking about the extent to which we could see hospitals overwhelmed.

Royce Young, NBA writer, ESPN: Things had started to shift in the NBA. On March 10, I was at an Oklahoma City Thunder practice, and we had new media policies in place. We talked to Danilo Gallinari, who was sitting at a podium, separated from us by like eight feet, which was unusual. From the reporter’s perspective, it felt a little dehumanizing. This player was up at the podium, protected. Then all of us media members are sitting shoulder-to-shoulder. It’s like, “Oh, I guess they don’t care about us.” Gallinari was Italian and has family that has been in lockdown basically for more than a month. He sat there that day and talked about how he was advocating for the NBA to close games off to fans. He was the first player to do that.

President Donald Trump, via Twitter, 5:59 pm, March 10: Best unemployment numbers in the history of our Country. Best employment number EVER, almost 160 million people working right now. Vote Republican, unless you want to see these numbers obliterated!

Angela Merkel, German chancellor, news conference in Berlin, 6:51 am: The coronavirus has arrived in Germany. When the virus is out there, and the population has no immunity and no vaccination or therapy exists, then a high percentage—experts say 60 to 70 percent of the population—will be infected, so long as this remains the case.

Maxi Kleber, power forward, Dallas Mavericks: Covid-19 has been around for a little while. It was a topic every day you talked about it a little bit, but it hadn’t really hit us yet. I talk every day to my family back in Germany. At the very beginning, the first couple of days, my family in Germany was ahead of us.

Peter Tuchman: Even though it was across the ocean, it started all to become real. It felt like a tsunami—how it started in China, it rolled through South Korea and Iran, then it started to break over Italy. It was just a giant wave leaving wreckage in its path.

Jen Flanz, showrunner and executive producer, The Daily Show With Trevor Noah: The morning of the 11th, I felt like things were definitely getting more intense and more real—it was more of a real thing. A bunch of people from The Daily Show were supposed to leave for South by Southwest that week, and it had gotten canceled very late in the game. And my father also works in hospitals in Queens, so I had been downloading with him, and I was like, “Oh, this is going to get bad.”

Gabriella Orr: I remember that morning, having spoken with White House officials earlier that day and earlier that week, that the president just really needed to do something more than what the administration was already doing. I remember this collective feeling of angst inside the White House, but also among those of us covering it. At that point the virus was starting to impact the United States in a way that it hadn’t before.

Peter Tuchman: The market can be skittish when it’s not sure what’s really going on. I remember trading, and everyone was starting to kind of get concerned. Markets overnight were trading in complete spirals as the virus started spreading across the world.

Yamiche Alcindor: We were just beginning to realize the scale of this. It already seemed big. He had just signed this $8.3 billion law—these were huge numbers that were going to be thrown at the problem. This was all pre-2-trillion-dollars, of course. He’d asked for $2 billion, the Democrats had said it needed $8 billion. Now 2 trillion later, we’re already talking about more money. This is more expensive than anyone in either party imagined.

Claudia Sahm: Frankly, the night before, the 10th, I was in a bit of a panic because I was worried that I was overreacting. It was like gaslighting the way Trump and Republicans and Fox News would talk about the coronavirus. Like, “We’ve got this one, it’s not a big deal. It’s like the common flu.” Listening to that, I was saying, “We need to get going.” Congress needs to do real things. That morning, I stood in front of the House Democrats at the minority whip breakfast and told them what they needed to do with a relief package. I told the House Democrats that the $8.3 billion package that they had passed the week before was an insult.

Tom Frieden: It’s been really clear that it’s been too little, too late, for a long time.

Carolyn Maloney: I had worked very, very hard to get Dr. Anthony Fauci to testify before my committee. I saw him at a briefing and went up and asked him to testify. His staff was telling me that he couldn’t testify unless he had a month’s notice. He had told me he’d be glad to. He has served six different presidents, both Republican and Democrat. And in my introduction, I introduced him as America’s doctor. It was a very tense hearing, because about five minutes prior to the hearing we were told the agencies would need to cut the hearing short. There was an emergency meeting at the White House, that they could only testify for an hour and then they had to leave.

10:06 am—US House of Representatives, House Committee on Oversight and Reform Hearing, Washington, DC:

Carolyn Maloney: Is the worst yet to come, Dr. Fauci?

Anthony Fauci, director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: Yes, it is.

Carolyn Maloney: Can you elaborate?

Anthony Fauci: Whenever you have an outbreak that you can start seeing community spread—which means by definition that you don’t know what the index case is and the way you can approach it is by contact tracing—then it becomes a situation where you’re not going to be able to effectively and efficiently contain it … We will see more cases, and things will get worse than they are right now. How much worse will depend on our ability to do two things: to contain the influx of people who are infected coming from the outside and the ability to contain and mitigate within our own country. Bottom line, it’s going to get worse.

After the hearing was cut short, there was no sign of any emergency White House meeting.

Dan Pfeiffer: The Minneapolis airport that morning was empty—it was shocking. My flight was very empty. My wife had told me 100 times to make sure I wiped down everything in my area, and I’m sitting next to this guy—he’s actually watching Fox on the Direct TV next to me—and I wiped down everything. He sees me wiping down and I guess he sees that he has permission to do what his wife had also told him to do—so, he takes out his wipes and wipes out everything.

Ryan Ruocco: It had been particularly eerie traveling those two weeks. On Wednesday, it felt like it had hit a new crescendo. I noticed every single person wiping down their seats.

Liz Hannah: I had a meeting that morning we hugged when I came in. It was sort of an awkward joke—should we hug? Is that safe? It was this weird thing at that point. That was the last conversation or meeting I’ve had where Covid was not the primary topic of conversation.

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, director general, World Health Organization, Covid-19 media briefing, 12:16 pm: WHO has been assessing this outbreak around the clock, and we are deeply concerned both by the alarming levels of spread and severity and by the alarming levels of inaction. We have therefore made the assessment that Covid-19 can be characterized as a pandemic. Pandemic is not a word to use lightly or carelessly. It is a word that, if misused, can cause unreasonable fear or unjustified acceptance that the fight is over, leading to unnecessary suffering and death … We have never before seen a pandemic sparked by a coronavirus.

Peter Tuchman: That was the date that they used the word pandemic. It’s funny how keywords are so significant in the way the market trades. The minute that word came out—I remember it so well—the market just careened off a cliff.

Yamiche Alcindor: The WHO calling it a pandemic made it seem like something more real. I had family in Florida—it started to seem like it was sinking into everyday life. They’re makeup artists, they work in laundries, they work in factories, and they were asking, “What’s this virus?”

Peter Tuchman: The VIX—the volatility index—went from 20 to 38 to 60. That is a financial instrument based on fear. When you see it go that way, you can sense the fear. It’s like being in the room where it happened—like a Hamilton moment.

Peter Tuz: The unknowningness of the situation and its ramifications on the US economy, you started thinking about that more and more.

Claudia Sahm: Financial markets always look ahead. They’re reacting to things in the moment, but they’re often looking ahead and trying to react to that and pricing that into the stocks. What you saw is markets start falling. It made total sense. Investors do not like uncertainty. This is uncertainty layered on top of uncertainty.

Peter Tuz: I’ve been doing this since ’84—those are gut-wrenching moments for anyone who manages other people’s money. You feel it in your core. You wish you saw it coming, but the reason the markets fall so much is it’s unpredictable.

Gabriella Orr: Every hour on the hour until the president sat behind the Resolute Desk to give that address, there was something happening that just propelled the urgency more.

Douglas Brinkley: In 1929 Herbert Hoover acted like the Great Depression and the collapse of the stock markets and bank foreclosures weren’t his problem, it was a global issue—don’t blame me—it’s not as big as people say. And it’s why Hoover is ranked very low as a president. And early in the coronavirus crisis, Trump behaved like Herbert Hoover. He was like an ostrich with his head buried in the sand, still wanting to talk in political terms about the pandemic, thinking how a pandemic would damage his brand instead of really grappling with the dimensions of the shit storm that might be hitting America.

Gabriella Orr: The primary motivation behind the president’s Oval Office address was that they really wanted to do something to stabilize the stock market. They were concerned about uncertainty and fluctuations. They felt a primetime Oval Office address—the second one that Trump has given since taking office—would somehow alleviate the anxiety. So they organized this moment where he was to address the nation from the Oval Office, give a somber but also serious speech about the direction that his administration would take to combat coronavirus.

Peter Tuchman: At that point during that week, everybody was desperate for leadership—whether you are a Republican or a Democrat or whatever you are. As an American or as a human being, we were desperately looking for some leadership. There were so many mixed tales being told about, “Are we prepared or not? Is the world coming to an end or not? Is anybody telling the truth or not? Are we going to support whatever happens economically or not?” We needed leadership—the market needed leadership.

Dan Pfeiffer: A national televised address is the biggest weapon in the president’s communications arsenal. It is a card you really only get to play once. I’ve been involved in many, many conversations about if, when, and how you do these remarks. Obviously, there are times when events force them to happen faster than you would like—the most famous example in the Obama era would be bin Laden—but other times, like when you’re in the midst of an ongoing crisis, you have to get all of your ducks in a row.

Douglas Brinkley: Usually the Oval Office address is the time when you really could drive points home—Ronald Reagan in 1986 after the Challenger disaster or George W. Bush talking from the Oval Office on 9/11.

Gabriella Orr: In talking to White House officials, they really thought that this was a plan that would work. They thought that the president had worked carefully on his speech with advisers like Stephen Miller and Jared Kushner, that close inner circle that has always been around the president, that has always made him feel the most comfortable. They were the ones directly involved in writing the address that President Trump delivered that evening.

Ryan Ruocco: As I’m getting ready for the game, I am definitely distracted—constantly following what the latest updates are on how different leagues and teams and conferences are reacting to what’s going on with coronavirus. I love what I do, I love it—and normally on a game day, those hours before we actually go to the arena, I’m just totally, completely engrossed in the preparation for the game—going through storylines and stats and updating numbers and making sure I’m ready to go on air. But on this day, it just felt like it was taking a backseat to the news. It was hard to totally lock in.

Royce Young: There was a Sports Illustrated reporter, Chris Mannix, who had written something earlier in that afternoon about how the NBA is going to have to shut down the season. I read it with this totally dismissive mindset, like, “Get a load of this thing! Chris Mannix shut down the NBA season? Jeez, man. Pump the brakes.”

President Donald Trump, via Twitter, 2:52 pm: America is the Greatest Country in the world. We have the best scientists, doctors, nurses and health care professionals. They are amazing people who do phenomenal things every day. Together we are putting into policy a plan to prevent, detect, treat and create a vaccine against CoronaVirus to save lives in America and the world. America will get it done!

Peter Tuchman: We were in hyper-stress mode because of what the market had been doing. You can sense the fragility of a market on the floor of the stock exchange. That room is full of press. It’s full of brokers. It’s full of market makers. It’s the epicenter of all things headline. In a very visceral way, you could feel it. You have these billboards—these screens running in real time, the S&P, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, the volatility index, the real estate index, and whatnot. It’s a plethora of information. You could just feel the sense that the screen is almost shivering in a way. When you see stocks and markets trading at intervals of hundreds of points—stocks dropping 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 percent at a clip—there’s something just extraordinary about it.

Claudia Sahm: I started at the Federal Reserve in 2008. I focused on consumers. I did a lot of work on how fragile the finances of a lot of families are. I kept working on the macro economy on through the recovery from the Great Recession. And it was horrible—policymakers didn’t do what they needed to do, they really abandoned many Americans. When I saw all these events starting to play out—the public health crisis, the response of some countries like Italy to shut down—all of a sudden I was looking into the future, and the future was moving really fast. I was convinced that not only were we basically falling off the cliff economically, but we were going to fall really far. Many, many Americans are never ready for a recession—and no one was ready for this recession.

Peter Tuchman: We’re at a crossroads where people’s fear about what’s happening in the market moment by moment in real time is meeting up against their fear of the health and well-being of their family— which is unheard of. Everybody kept asking me, “So what does this relate to? Does it remind you of the crash of ’87? Does it remind you of 9/11? Does it remind you of the financial crisis?” I had to be honest with them. I said, “It reminds me of none of that stuff.”

Claudia Sahm: The stock market was giving us a very clear signal that we have a problem—a big problem. This is a real thing they’re reacting to.

Peter Tuchman: What differentiated that week as the market was going—you could just see in people’s eyes—first they were worried about how they were going to do the best for the customer with the order they had in their hands, whether it was a buy or sell, in a market that was just careening off a cliff. Then, how they were going to navigate through—God forbid—their family members, their elderly parents or something, getting sick. What was going to be the condition of their 401k and retirement funds when all this was said and done? Then, you know, what is life going to look like on the other side of this? That’s unprecedented. You had the sense in people’s eyes that this was more than just a financial sell-off, that we were really at the epicenter of some epic shit about to happen.

Peter Tuz: In a really dramatic market crash, very few things hold up well. When you have these big crashes, you’re just frozen like a deer in the headlights. It’s a very paralyzing feeling.

Peter Tuchman: The fastest sell-off in history.

CBS MarketWatch, market snapshot, 4:55 pm: The Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged 1,464.94 points, or 5.9 percent, to settle at 23,553.22, with the blue-chip benchmark’s close below 23,641.14 marking a bear market, widely defined as a drop of at least 20 percent from a record intraday peak.

Miles Kahn, executive producer, Full Frontal with Samantha Bee: Everything got really, really crazy really, really quick, like everything ramped up in like a matter of 72 hours that was really kind of shocking.

Jen Flanz: Throughout that week, me and a few of the other late night showrunners—we’re normally friendly anyway, but we don’t usually discuss show plans—had started regrouping about what we were doing. It started to seem like it was a bad idea to have big groups of people. For the safety of everyone we should stop having an audience. That Wednesday night, we all coordinated to put out a press release saying that as of Monday, we’re no longer going to have audiences.


How did the Romans number days?

The Romans didn&rsquot number the days sequentially from 1. Instead they had three fixed points in each month:

&ldquoKalendae&rdquo (or &ldquoCalendae&rdquo), which was the first day of the month. &ldquoIdus&rdquo, which was the 13th day of January, February, April, June, August, September, November, and December, or the 15th day of March, May, July, or October. &ldquoNonae&rdquo, which was the 9th day before Idus (counting Idus itself as the 1st day).

The days between Kalendae and Nonae were called &ldquothe 5th day before Nonae&rdquo, &ldquothe 4th day before Nonae&rdquo, &ldquothe 3rd day before Nonae&rdquo, and &ldquothe day before Nonae&rdquo. (There was no &ldquo2nd day before Nonae&rdquo. This was because of the inclusive way of counting used by the Romans: To them, Nonae itself was the first day, and thus &ldquothe 2nd day before&rdquo and &ldquothe day before&rdquo would mean the same thing.)

Similarly, the days between Nonae and Idus were called &ldquothe Xth day before Idus&rdquo, and the days after Idus were called &ldquothe Xth day before Kalendae (of the next month)&rdquo.

Julius Caesar decreed that in leap years the &ldquo6th day before Kalendae of March&rdquo should be doubled. So in contrast to our present system, in which we introduce an extra date (29 February), the Romans had the same date twice in leap years. The doubling of the 6th day before Kalendae of March is the origin of the word bissextile. If we create a list of equivalences between the Roman days and our current days of February in a leap year, we get the following:

Roman dateModern date
7th day before Kalendae of March23 February
6th day before Kalendae of March24 February
6th day before Kalendae of March25 February
5th day before Kalendae of March26 February
4th day before Kalendae of March27 February
3th day before Kalendae of March28 February
The day before Kalendae of March29 February
Kalendae of March1 March

Since the leap day was the &ldquo6th day before Kalendae of March&rdquo, either 24 or 25 February is still today frequently considered the leap day.

Why did Caesar choose to double the 6th day before Kalendae of March? According to some sources the leap month Intercalaris/Mercedonius of the pre-reform calendar was not placed after February, but inside it, namely between the 7th and 6th day before Kalendae of March. It was therefore natural to have the leap day in the same position. [2]


March 2015 Movies

Mickey (Sebastian Stan) and Chloe (Denise Gough), two Americans in their mid-thirties.

Anne is married to a small-town minister and feels like her life and marriage have.

A young couple (Sawyer Spielberg and Malin Barr) are forced to seek shelter in the.

Nicolas Shaw is a retired U.S. special operative who becomes part of an elite 'invisible'.

In a time when monsters walk the Earth, humanity’s fight for its future sets Godzilla.

A near college graduate, Danielle, gets paid by her sugar daddy and rushes to meet.

Determined to ensure Superman’s (Henry Cavill) ultimate sacrifice was not in vain.


Easter 2015

Easter (Easter Sunday) or Pascha is the oldest and most important Christian feast, celebrating the Resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day after his crucifixion, as described in the New Testament. Easter is preceded by Lent, a forty-day period of fasting and penance that starts on Ash Wednesday.

Moveable Feasts Related to Easter

Dates of many of the most important Christian holidays are related to the date of Easter. Below you can find a list of most of them in 2015 year. Please note that some of them are only observed by the Roman Catholic church while other by most of the Christian churches around the world. Their "popularity" also varies from country to country.

How is the date of Easter determined?

Easter is a moveable holiday meaning that its date varies from year to year. In Western churches, like the Roman Catholic Church, which use the Gregorian calendar, the earliest possible date is March 22, while the latest is April 25. However, these are very rare &mdash the next time Easter falls on April 25 is in the year 2038, and the next time the date is March 22 will be in the year 2285. The most common date between the year 1900 and 2100 is April 19. Eastern churches, including the Eastern Orthodox Church, use the Julian calendar, therefore the date usually differs from the Gregorian calendar, even though the dates are computed in a similar way.

The date of Easter is determined as the first Sunday after the Paschal full moon falling on or next after the spring equinox (March 21 &mdash a fixed date not the real, astronomical equinox). The Paschal full moon refers to the 14th day of the ecclesiastical lunar month and not the real, astronomical Full Moon, and its date is determined from tables. However, most often the two dates coincide, and between the year 1900 and 2100 there are only 18 differences between the dates calculated using the two methods. A well-known method of calculating the date of Easter was given by Carl Friedrich Gauss, however a simpler method was described by Jean Meeus in [1].

Early Easter Date Calculations

The first Christians followed the biblical Hebrew calendar and timed the observance of Easter in relation to the date of the Jewish Passover. Passover was celebrated by the Israelites to commemorate their deliverance from the slavery in Egypt. The Passover meal was eaten at sunset on the 14th day of Nisan (Aviv). Jesus was crucified on the 14th and rose from the dead some time before sunrise on the 16th day of Nisan. Because the Jews got away from the biblical Hebrew calendar (in 221 AD and further in 400 AD), and because the Christians wanted the date to be independent of the Jewish calendar, the First Council of Nicaea (325 AD) established the independent and uniform calculation of the Easter date.

Easter Celebrations

In many countries, Easter is a public holiday, and as it always falls on Sunday, some countries also have Easter Monday as a public holiday, including Australia, Germany and Ireland.

Although, Easter is the most important Christian holiday it is not as popular as Christmas. It joins two important events of which the first is profoundly sad and dramatic while the other is just the opposite. The first one is, of course, the Crucifixion and Death of Christ after which his body was placed in the tomb. Three days later he Resurrected beating death. Resurrection is a triumph of life and even more astonishing than the miracle of Christ birth.

In addition to religious celebrations involving Church services, Easter is celebrated in several ways in the United States, Europe and other parts of the world. Some of these celebrations have little to do with the Christian meaning of the holiday. The most popular include family meals, Easter eggs decoration, hiding the decorated eggs for children to find and giving children baskets with candy.

In the USA, the Spring break for high school and college students usually occurs about Easter time, hence many families leave the cold of northern states to visit amusement parks or sunny beaches in the south.

[1] Meeus, Jean H. Astronomical algorithms. Willmann-Bell, Incorporated, 1991.


Watch the video: 2ο Γυμνάσιο Λάρισας Βίντεο για την Εθνική Ημέρα Μνήμης του Ολοκαυτώματος 2020